Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, damp or seasonally wet, alkaline soils, wastelots and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from South America (although treated as native in CA by Jeps. Man.)
Growth Duration: Annual
Conservation Status: Not of concern
PNW Herbaria: Specimen records of Xanthium spinosum in the Consortium of Pacific Northwest Herbaria database.
WA Flora Checklist: Xanthium spinosum checklist entry.
OregonFlora: Xanthium spinosum information.
E-Flora BC: Xanthium spinosum atlas page.
CalPhotos: Xanthium spinosum photos.
USDA Plants: Xanthium spinosum information.