Poaceae
Grass Family
Synonyms:
Gramineae [HC]
102 genera
305 species
96 subspecies and varieties
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Index to genera:
Achnatherum hendersoniiHenderson's needlegrass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Douglas, Kittitas, and Yakima counties; central Washington to Jefferson County, Oregon.
Habitat: Dry, rocky, shallow soil, in sagebrush desert or ponderosa pine forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Achnatherum hymenoidesIndian ricegrass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Grasslands, desert plains, and foothills, especially on rocky or sandy soil.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Achnatherum lemmoniiLemmon's needlegrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Grassy balds, prairies, sagebrush grasslands, and ponderosa pine forest, from the lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Achnatherum nelsoniiNelson's needlegrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east to the northern Great Plains and Colorado.
Habitat: Moist to mesic, montane to subalpine meadows and open forest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. dorei – Nelson's needlegrass
ssp. nelsonii – Nelson's needlegrass
Achnatherum occidentalecommon western needlegrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Grassland, sagebrush desert, and coniferous forests from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. californicum – California needlegrass
ssp. pubescens – western needlegrass
Achnatherum richardsoniiRichardson's ricegrass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to northeastern Oregon, east to the Canadian Great Plains and south in the Rocky Mountains to Colorado.
Habitat: Sandy and gravelly sites in grassland, open forest, and sagebrush grassland.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Achnatherum thurberianumThurber's ricegrass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; south-central British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado.
Habitat: Sagebrush grassland and ponderosa pine forest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Aegilops cylindricajointed goatgrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of the United States to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Waste ground and roadsides; a troublesome weed in wheat.
Origin: Introduced from southern Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Agropyron cristatumcrested wheatgrass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Dry, open areas where distiurbed; frequently planted for soil stabilization and forage.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Agropyron fragileSiberian wheatgrass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; south-central British Columbia to southeastern Idaho.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Agrostis capillariscolonial bentgrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open, disturbed areas often at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Agrostis castellanaHighland bentgrass, dryland browntop
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington: southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Disturbed sites, roadsides, and gravel bars.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Agrostis densifloraCalifornia bentgrass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in western Washington along the outer coast; coastal Washington to California.
Habitat: Coastal bluffs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Agrostis exarataspiked bentgrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Nebraska and Texas.
Habitat: Moist areas, from near sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Agrostis giganteablack bentgrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed sites, roadsides, edge of agricultural fields, mostly at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Agrostis idahoensisIdaho bentgrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Subalpine and alpine meadows, along wet seepage areas, bogs, and wet openings in coniferous forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Agrostis mertensiiMerten's bentgrass, northern bentgrass
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades Range in Washington; Alaska to northern Washington; circumboreal.
Habitat: Rocky alpine meadows and ridgelines.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Agrostis microphyllasmall-leaf bentgrass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Seasonally wet areas on thin, rocky or sandy substrates, vernal pools, cliffs, and serpentine areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Agrostis oregonensisOregon bentgrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Nevada.
Habitat: Stream and lake margins, damp woodlands and meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Agrostis pallensseashore bentgrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to western Montana and Utah.
Habitat: Coastal sands and cliffs, meadows, open, dry lowlands to subalpine forest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Agrostis scabrarough bentgrass
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed sites in grassl, open forest, marshes, and lakesides, often along roads and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Agrostis stoloniferaspreading bentgrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet, disturbed areas that include streambanks, flooded fields, and ditches at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Agrostis variabilisalpine bentgrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Wet subalpine and alpine seeps and meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Aira caryophylleasilver hairgrass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington and east in the Columbia River Gorge; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Wyoming, also in the southeastern U.S. and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Balds, prairies, meadows, forest openings, roadsides, wastelots, and other open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced Eurasia and North Africa
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
var. caryophyllea – silver hairgrass
Aira praecoxearly silver hairgrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Gravelly prairies, sea bluffs and dunes near the coast, also in other disturbed, open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Alopecurus aequalislittle foxtail, short-awn foxtail
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Shores, riverbanks, vernal pools, sloughs, wet meadows, and seeps, often submersed.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Alopecurus arundinaceuscreeping meadow-foxtail
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central British Columbia to Washington, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains; also in scattered locations in eastern North America.
Habitat: Alkaline meadows and shores, ditches, shores.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Alopecurus carolinianustufted meadow-foxtail
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Shores, wet meadows, vernal pools, ditches.
Origin: Introduced from central North America?
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Alopecurus geniculatuswater foxtail
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast in Canada.
Habitat: Wet places, often in standing water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Alopecurus myosuroidesslender meadow-foxtail
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California, also in the southern and eastern U.S. and Canadian Great Plains.
Habitat: Margins of cultivated fields, damp roadsides, and vernal pools.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Alopecurus pratensisfield meadow-foxtail
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Swampy areas in meadows, in irrigated fields, and along roadsides.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Alopecurus saccatusPacific meadow-foxtail
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington and southwestern Oregon to California.
Habitat: Lowland vernal pools, shores, wet scabland, meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Ammophila arenariaEuropean beachgrass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington along the marine coast; western British Columbia to California, also in scattered locations along coast of northeastern North America.
Habitat: Sandy beaches and dunes along the coast.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. arenaria – European beachgrass
Ammophila breviligulataAmerican beachgrass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington along the marine coast; western British Columbia to California; native from Great Lakes region east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Sandy beaches and dunes along the coast.
Origin: Introduced eastern North America
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. breviligulata – American beachgrass
Anthoxanthum aristatumannual vernalgrass
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California; occurring throughout most of central and eastern half of North America.
Habitat: Meadows, grasslands, forest openings, and other disturbed, open areas at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
ssp. aristatum – small sweet vernal grass
Anthoxanthum odoratumsweet vernalgrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, southern Great Plains, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, meadows, prairies, balds, lawns, and other disturbed open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Apera interruptadense silky-bent
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; also in the central U.S., Great Lakes region, and northeastern U.S.
Habitat: Dry wasteland and other disturbed areas in shrub-steppe and open coniferous forests.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Aristida purpureathreeawn
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to central Canada and the central U.S.
Habitat: Desert plains, grasslands, and pondersoa pine forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
var. longiseta – red threeawn
Arrhenatherum elatiusbulbous oatgrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Meadows, balds, pastures, fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Avena barbatabarbed oats
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Montana, Arizona, and New Mexico.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced Eurasian
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Avena fatuawild oats
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Avena sativacultivated oats
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from the Mediterranean region
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Beckmannia syzigachneAmerican sloughgrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Pond margins, marshes and ditches at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Brachypodium sylvaticumfalse brome
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; British Columbia to California; also in Virginia.
Habitat: Roadsides, forest edge, and other disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced Eurasia and North Africa
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
ssp. sylvaticum – false brome
Briza maximabig quakinggrass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California; also in the southwestern U.S. and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Dry to moist roadsides, wastelots, meadows, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced Europe
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Bromus arenariusAustralian brome
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Californai, east to Nevada and Arizona.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Bromus briziformisrattlesnake brome
Distribution: Southern British Columbia south to California, east to Idaho and Montana; occasional in eastern United States.
Habitat: Waste ground, roadsides, and overgrazed areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: Late May - July
Growth Duration: Annual
Bromus ciliatusfringed brome
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Damp meadows, thickets, woodlands, and stream banks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bromus commutatusmeadow brome
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Waste ground, meadows, and roadsides.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Bromus diandrusgreat brome, ripgut brome, ripgut grass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, southern Great Plains, and in eastern North America.
Habitat: Grassy balds, prairies, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Bromus hordeaceussoft chess
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Baja California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Prairies, bluffs, grasslands, waste ground, roadsides, dry hillsides, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Bromus inermissmooth brome
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, meadows, parks, and other disturbed open areas; often planted for hay and soil stabilization.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bromus japonicusJapanese brome
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert and grasslands to lower mountain forests; often a weed of roadsides and waste land.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Bromus orcuttianusChinook brome
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern Washington to California, east to Nevada and Arizona.
Habitat: Dry hillsides, rocky slopes, montane meadows, and open coniferous forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bromus pacificusPacific brome
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon.
Habitat: Meadows and forest openingsat low elevations, often near or along the coast.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bromus pumpellianusarctic brome
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains, east across Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Stream banks, lake shores, sand dunes, meadows, grassy slopes, and roadsides
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. pumpellianus – arctic brome
Bromus racemosusbald brome
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Bromus rubensfox-tail brome
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in south-central Washington; south-central Washington to California, east to Idaho, Utah and Arizona.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas including overgrazed lands.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Bromus secalinusrye brome
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed, open ground.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Bromus sitchensisAlaska brome, Sitka brome
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains
Habitat: Dry to moist open areas from lowlands to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. aleutensis – Aleut brome
var. carinatus – California brome
var. marginatus – large mountain brome
var. polyanthus – smooth brome
var. sitchensis – Sitka brome
Bromus squarrosuscorn brome
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east in scattered locations to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open, disturbed areas including fields, meadows, and forest openings.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Bromus sterilispoverty brome
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Southern British Columbia to California, east to Idaho, the southern Rocky Mountains, and Texas; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Fields, grassy balds, roadside, wastelots, and other disturbed places.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Bromus suksdorfiiSuksdorf's brome
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southern Washington; southern Washington to California.
Habitat: Open subalpine forest and slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bromus tectorumsoft brome, cheatgrass, cheat grass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Baja California, Mexico, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert, grasslands, prairies, meadows, balds, roadsides, wastelots, and other distrubed open areas from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Bromus vulgarisColumbian brome
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south along the coast to northern California, east to Alberta, Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Shaded to open woods or moist to dry banks, from near sea level to mountain meadows and dry, rocky slopes at 6000' elevation.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Calamagrostis canadensisbluejoint reedgrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Wet places, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. canadensis – bluejoint reedgrass
var. langsdorffii – Langsdorff's jointed reedgrass
Calamagrostis howelliiHowell's reedgrass
Distribution: Occurring in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; south-central Washington to adjacent Oregon.
Habitat: Rocky banks and crevices.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Calamagrostis nutkaensisNootka reedgrass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington along the coast; Alaska to California.
Habitat: In coastal areas in wetlands, forest openings, salt- and freshwater beaches and dunes, and cliffs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Calamagrostis purpurascenspurple reedgrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, and east across the northern Great Plains to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist subalpine meadows and stream banks, often in partial shade.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Calamagrostis rubescenspinegrass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, Montana and Colorado
Habitat: Dry to moist areas, open sagebrush flats to timbered slopes, moderate to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Calamagrostis strictaslimstem reedgrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wetlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. inexpansa – narrow-spiked reedgrass
ssp. stricta – narrow-spiked reedgrass
Calamagrostis tacomensisRainier reedgrass
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic Mountains and Cascade Range in Washington. Washington to northern Oregon.
Habitat: Montane to alpine meadows, seeps, and rocky slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Calamagrostis tweedyiCascade reedgrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in central Washington; central Washington to southern Oregon, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Moist meadows and subalpine slopes, usually in forest edge or understory.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Calamovilfa longifoliaprairie sandreed
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southeastern British Columbia to eastern Washington, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Prairies and foothills, where escaped from soil stabilization plantings.
Origin: Introduced from central and eastern North America
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. longifolia – prairie sandgrass, prairie sandreed
Cenchrus longispinuslongspine sandbur, mat sandbur
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Mexico, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Sandy river banks and other disturbed, seasonally moist areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Cinna latifoliaslender wood-reed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Moist woods and meadows, sea level to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Coleanthus subtilismoss grass
Distribution: Occurring in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southern British Columbia, Columbia River Gorge, and Lower Columbia River, also in southwestern Oregon.
Habitat: Lake margins and sand bars.
Origin: Native?
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Cortaderia jubatapurple pampas grass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Disturbed, open areas at low elevation.
Origin: Introduced from northern South America
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cortaderia selloanapampas grass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, in scattered states eastward to Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed, open soil of wastelots, abandoned fields, and roadsides at low elevations, often near coast.
Origin: Introduced from central South America
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Corynephorus canescensgray hairgrass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to northwestern Washington.
Habitat: Moist disturbed, open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Crypsis alopecuroidesfoxtail pricklegrass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, and in eastern North America.
Habitat: Sandy soils around drying lake margins and other seasonally moist, disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from n. Africa and Eurasia
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Crypsis vaginifloramodest pricklegrass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington in the Grant County area; Washington to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, rocky parking areas, wastelots, and other disturbed sites.
Origin: Introduced from the western Mediterranean
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Cynodon dactylonbermuda grass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, southern Great Plains and eastern North America.
Habitat: A weed of lawns, pastures, roadsides, railroad tracks, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cynosurus cristatuscrested dogtail
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, also in Idaho, Montana, and Colorado.
Habitat: Waste places, old meadows, roadsides, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cynosurus echinatusbristly dog's-tail grass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed open areas, including roadsides, grasslands, and wastelots.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Dactylis glomerataorchard grass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed areas such as meadows, fields, roadsides, and forest edges; common forage plant; also planted in logged areas in the mountains.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia and northern Africa
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Danthonia californicaCalifornia oatgrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Open, grassy meadows to rocky ridges, from coastal prairies to mid-elevations in the mountains, often with ponderosa pine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Danthonia decumbenscommon heath-grass, mountain heath-grass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in southwestern Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California; also in northeastern Canada.
Habitat: Marshy margins, dunes, dry meadows, damp, disturbed ground.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Danthonia intermediatimber oatgrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, and eastern Canada; also in eastern Russia.
Habitat: Dry, mesic or wet meadows, peatlands, rocky slopes, and talus, from the lowlands to alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Danthonia spicatapoverty oatgrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Newfoundland and eastern United States.
Habitat: Sandy to rocky soil in dry woods and fairly dry meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Danthonia unispicatafew-flower oatgrass, one-spike oatgrass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the northern Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Dry to occasionally moist prairies, foothills, and open parks and ridges in mountain forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Deschampsia cespitosatufted hairgrass
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern North America.
Habitat: From coastal marshes and moist prairies to alpine ridges, talus slopes, mountain meadows, and moist areas in the mountains in general.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Deschampsia danthonioidesannual hair-grass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the the Rocky Mountains; apparently introduced in Alaska, Yukon Territory, Arizona, New Mexico, and the eastern U.S.; disjunct in Chile and Argentina.
Habitat: Mesic to damp open slopes, ledges, vernal pools, scablands, stream banks, and roadsides.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Deschampsia elongataslender hair-grass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist sandy or gravelly banks and slopes, and borders of streams and lakes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dichanthelium acuminatumhairy perennial panicgrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Rocky or sandy river banks or lake margins to open woods, marshy areas or dry prairies, from sea level to high elevation in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. fasciculatum – hairy panicgrass
Dichanthelium oligosanthesScribner's perennial panicgrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south on both sides of the Cascades to northern California, east to Idaho, Montana and Utah, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Dry prairies or rocky areas to sandy stream banks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. scribnerianum – Scribner's panicgrass witchgrass
Digitaria ischaemumsmooth crabgrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Lawns, roadsides and wastland, usually where moist.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Digitaria sanguinalishairy crabgrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Lawns, gardens, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Diplachne fuscaclustered salt-grassprangletop, loose-flowered sprangletop
Distribution: Occurring in a few scattered locations chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: August-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
ssp. fascicularis – bearded sprangletop
Distichlis spicataalkaline grass, coastal salt grass
Distribution: Vancouver Island, British Columbia, south to California; also along the east coast of the United States from Canada to Florida and Texas.
Habitat: Coastal beaches, salt marshes, and inland areas where alkaline.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Echinochloa crus-gallibarnyard grass, large barnyard grass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, meadows, wastelots, and other disturbed areas, often where moist or wet.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Echinochloa muricataAmerican barnyard-grass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Shores, swales, riparian zones, moist, disturbed ground, and roadsides.
Origin: Native?
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
var. microstachya – American barnyard grass, American watergrass
×Elyhordeum macounii
Origin: Native
×Elyleymus aristatus
Origin: Native
Elymus albicansMontana wild rye
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Washington, east to the northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Shallow, rocky soils on wooded or sagebrush-covered slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Elymus canadensisCanadian wild rye
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Quebec, North Carolina and Texas
Habitat: Streambanks and thickets on sandy, dry to moist soil, and in disturbed areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. canadensis – Canadian wild rye, nodding wild rye
Elymus curvatusbeardless wild rye, awnless wildrye
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; southeastern British Columbia to northeastern Washington, east to the northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Moist soils of open forest, thickets, grasslands, ditches, and disturbed ground, especially on bottomland.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Elymus elymoidesbottlebrush, squirreltail
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to southern California, east to the Great Plains and eastern North America.
Habitat: Dry and rocky to moist habitats, from along the coast to inland desert plains and prairies, and to the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. brevifolius – longleaf squirreltail
ssp. elymoides – bottlebrush squirreltail, California squirreltail
ssp. hordeoides – bottlebrush, squirreltail
Elymus glaucusblue wild-rye
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Prairies, open woods, and dry to moist hillsides, from the lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. glaucus – blue wildrye
ssp. virescens – blue wildrye
Elymus ×hansenii
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Elymus hirsutusboreal wildrye, Northwest wildrye
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Alberta and Idaho.
Habitat: Forests, thickets, and grasslands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Elymus lanceolatusthick-spiked wheatgrass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Sand and clay soils, dry to mesic grasslands, and sagebrush.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. lanceolatus – thick-spiked wheatgrass
ssp. psammophilus – sand-dune wheatgrass
ssp. riparius – stream bank wheatgrass
Elymus multisetusbig squirreltail
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to California, east to Idaho, Colorado, and Arizona.
Habitat: Dry, often rocky, open woodland and thickets on slopes and plains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Elymus repenscreeping wildrye
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast; circumboreal.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, meadows, pastures, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Elymus scribneriScribner's wildrye
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades Range in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Open, rocky, often windswept subalpine and alpine regions.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Elymus trachycaulusslender wheatgrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Lowland to subalpine, usually in open areas, occasionally in forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. trachycaulus – bearded wheatgrass
Elymus violaceusarctic wheatgrass, bearded wheatgrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains, east across Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: High montane to alpine rocks and grassland.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Elymus wawawaiensiswawawai wildrye
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southeastern Washington to eastern Oregon and western Idaho.
Habitat: Shallow, rocky soils.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Eragrostis cilianensisstinkgrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed areas and waste land, and along streams and pond margins.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Eragrostis curvulaweeping lovegrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across the southern U.S. to eastern North America.
Habitat: Distrubed areas where open, and forest edge.
Origin: Introduced from southern Africa
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Eragrostis hypnoidesteal lovegrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington and in the Columbia River Gorge. northern Washington to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Mud flats along streams, ponds and lakes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Eragrostis lutescenssix-weeks love grass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; eastern Washington to California, east to Colorado and New Mexico.
Habitat: Shores, canyons, moist alkaline flats, and disturbed ground.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Eragrostis mexicanaMexican lovegrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to Idaho, Coloarado, New Mexico, and Texas; also in scattered locations in eastern North America.
Habitat: Sandy or silty shores, roadsides, ditches, and disturbed ground.
Origin: Introduced from southwestern U.S.
Flowers: July-Octobaer
Growth Duration: Annual
ssp. virescens – Mexican lovegrass, orcutt's lovegrass
Eragrostis minorlittle lovegrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed ground, roadsides, railroads, and shores.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Eragrostis pectinaceatufted lovegrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Shores, roadsides, ditches, and disturbed ground.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
var. pectinacea – purple eragrostis, tufted eragrostis
Eragrostis pilosaIndia lovegrass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed ground, roadsides, and shores.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: Annual
var. pilosa – India lovegrass
Eremopyrum triticeumannual false wheatgrass
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Arizona, east to the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains.
Habitat: Dry wasteland, disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Festuca brachyphyllaalpine fescue
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, and northeastern North America; circumboreal.
Habitat: Open rocky places in the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. brachyphylla – alpine fescue
ssp. coloradensis – Colorado alpine fescue
Festuca campestrisprairie fescue
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Idaho, Montana, and the northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Upland prairies, montane and subalpine grasslands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Festuca filiformisfine-leaf sheep fescue
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to Oregon; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Sand dunes, quarries, roadsides, lawns.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Festuca idahoensisbluebunch fescue, Idaho fescue
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Grasslands and sagebrush desert to dry mountain slopes, occasionally to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Festuca occidentaliswestern fescue
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to southwestern Alberta and Wyoming; disjunct in the Great Lakes area.
Habitat: Forest understory, edges, and openings to rocky slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Festuca roemeriRoemer's fescue
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Meadows, grasslands, balds and forest openings mostly at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. roemeri – Roemer's fescue
Festuca rubrared fescue
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast; circumboreal.
Habitat: Grasslands, balds, coastal bluffs, fields, meadows, and roadsides.
Origin: Both native and introduced
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Festuca saximontanaRocky Mountain fescue
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America, also in Far East Russia.
Habitat: Montane and subalpine meadows and open forest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. purpusiana – Rocky Mountain fescue
Festuca subulatabearded fescue
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the northern Great Plains and Colorado.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Festuca subulifloracrinkle-awn fescue
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Shady sites in dry to moist, lowland to montane forest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Festuca trachyphyllahard fescue
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Festuca valesiacaValais fescue
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Roadsides, pastures, and grasslands.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Festuca viridulagreen-leaf fescue
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta and Montana.
Habitat: Subalpine slopes, rock slides, and meadows to well above timberline.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Festuca washingtonicaWashington fescue
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Southern British Columbia Washington.
Habitat: Well-drained slopes in sagebrush and open pine forest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Glyceria borealissmall floating mannagrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Swamps, wet meadows, and stream margins, often growing in 1-3 feet of water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Glyceria canadensisCanada mannagrass, rattlesnake mannagrass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; introduced from southwestern British Columbia to northwestern Oregon, native from the Great Plains to eastern North America.
Habitat: Swamps, bogs, lakeshore marshes, and wet forest.
Origin: Introduced from central and eastern North America
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. canadensis – rattlesnake mannagrass
Glyceria declinatalow glyceria, waxy mannagrass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, scattered eastward across North America.
Habitat: Vernal pools, disturbed wetlands.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Glyceria elatatall mannagrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south on both sides of the Cascades to California, east to Montana and New Mexico.
Habitat: Lake margins, stream banks, moist mountain meadows and other wet areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Glyceria fluitanswater mannagrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, also in central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Wetlands.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Glyceria grandisAmerican mannagrass, reed mannagrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Sloughs, damp meadows and stream borders.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. grandis – reed mannagrass
Glyceria leptostachyaslender-spike mannagrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Swamps, margins of streams and lakes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Glyceria maximatall mannagrass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washiington; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Swamps, pond and lake margins.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Glyceria ×occidentalisnorthwestern mannagrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Lakes, ponds, streams, and marshy areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Glyceria striatafowl mannagrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet places, bogs, and mountain meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Graphephorum wolfiibeardless graphephorum
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Mostly where wet, as in meadows or along streams in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hesperostipa comataneedle-and-thread
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east to the Great Plains and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Plains and prairies to forested areas in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. comata – needle and thread
Hierochloe occidentalisCalifornia sweetgrass
Distribution: Occurring along Cascades crest in Washington in south-central Washington; south-central Washington to California.
Habitat: moist to dry for and second growth
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hierochloe odoratahairy sweetgrass, vanillagrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washington, east across the northern half of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet meadows and marshes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Holcus lanatuscommon velvet-grass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Alaska to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Balds, prairies, roadsides, meadows, lawns, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Holcus molliscreeping softgrass, creeping velvet-grass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Lawns and damp areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. mollis – creeping velvet-grass
Hordeum brachyantherummeadow barley
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Ocean beaches to mountain meadows,usually where moist, but also from dry sagebrush desert to rocky ridges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. brachyantherum – meadow barley
Hordeum depressumdwarf barley
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Disturbed, often alkaline soil.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Hordeum jubatumfoxtail barley
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Meadows and prairies around riverbeds and seasonal lakes, often in saline habitats, and along roadsides and other disturbed sites.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. jubatum – foxtail barley
Hordeum marinumMediterranean barley
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Roads, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
ssp. gussoneanum – Mediterranean barley
Hordeum murinummouse barley, smooth barley, wall barley
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, meadows, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual
ssp. glaucum – mouse barley
ssp. leporinum – mouse barley
ssp. murinum – mouse barley
Hordeum vulgarebarley
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Old fields, wasteland, roadsides, and other disturbed areas where escaped from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
ssp. vulgare – common barley
Koeleria macranthaKoeler's prairie grass, prairie Junegrass
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to northern Mexico, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast except in the southeastern U.S.
Habitat: Sagebrush deserts, prairies, and open forests to subalpine ridges, mostly on sandy to rocky soil.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Leersia oryzoidesrice cutgrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet places, often in fairly deep water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Leymus cinereusGreat Basin wildrye
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Sagebrush-steppe, arid grasslands, forest edges, and other dry, open areas in the intermountain west.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Leymus condensatusgiant wildrye
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, where native.
Habitat: Sagebrush steppe and valley bottoms.
Origin: Introduced from California
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Leymus flavescenssand wildrye
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Oregon, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Sandy soils.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Leymus mollisAmerican dunegrass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington along the immediate marine coastline; Alaska to California, east across Canada to the Great Lakes region and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Coastal sand dunes, marshes, and headlands, where tolerant of salt water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. mollis – yellow ryegrass
Leymus racemosusmammoth lyme grass, mammoth wildrye
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to north-central Oregon, east to Wyoming.
Habitat: Sandy areas in sagebrush flats and plains.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Leymus triticoidesbeardless lyme grass, beardless wildrye
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Texas.
Habitat: Dry to moist, often alkaline meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Leymus ×vancouverensisVancouver wildrye
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington along the marine coast; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Marine coastal shores.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lolium multiflorumannual ryegrass, Italian ryegrass, perennial ryegrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides and waste ground.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Lolium perenneEnglish ryegrass, perennial ryegrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Old fields, roadsides, and waste places.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lolium persicumPersian ryegrass
Lolium temulentumdarnel, tare
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east across North America to the Atlantic.
Habitat: Disturbed ground, pastures, and roadsides.
Origin: Introduced from the Mediterranean
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
ssp. temulentum – darnel
Melica aristatabearded melic grass
Distribution: Known historically in Washington from the Lewis River in Skamania County, but now best considered extirpated in Washington; southern Washington to California.
Habitat: Dry forest, rocky slopes, ridges, and ledges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Melica bulbosaonion grass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington;
Habitat: Grassland, sagebrush, open forest, rocky slopes, and talus.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Melica fugaxsmall melic grass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Meadows, damp or dry slopes, open forest, and riparian zones.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Melica harfordiiHarford's melic grass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Rocky slopes and dry open forest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Melica smithiiSmith's melic grass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Alberta, Montana, Wyoming and South Dakota; also in eastern Canada.
Habitat: Moist woods from the lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Melica spectabilisshowy melic grass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, Montana and Colorado.
Habitat: Usually in moist, loamy soil in meadows and open parks in mountain forests, but also dry to wet meadowlands and open forests to subalpine ridges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Melica subulataAlaska oniongrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Open slopes to thick, dry or moist woods, from near sea level to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Miscanthus sinensisChinese silvergrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington;
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, forest edge, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Asia
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Molinia caeruleapurple moor grass
Distribution: Known from a single locality in King County where it is persistent; occurring in scattered locations throughout North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas at low elevation near the coast.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Muhlenbergia andinafoxtail muhly
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Shores, seeps, hot springs, and moist meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Muhlenbergia asperifoliaalkali muhly, scratchgrass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Dry to moist alkaline places.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Muhlenbergia filiformispullup muhly
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Kansas.
Habitat: Moist or wet meadows, shores, seeps, hot springs, and stream banks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Muhlenbergia glomerataspiked muhly
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon to northeastern Washington, Idaho and Nevada, east to the Atlantic.
Habitat: Peaty shores, rocky slopes, and roadsides.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Muhlenbergia mexicanawirestem muhly
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Rocky, sandy, or silty riverbanks, shores, moist or mesic slopes, roadsides, ditches, and railroads.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Muhlenbergia minutissimaannual muhly, least muhly
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Springs, shores, damp or dry rocky slopes, and moist meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Muhlenbergia richardsonismatted muhly
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Moist to dry lowlands, meadows, mountain prairies and rocky slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Oryzopsis asperifoliawhite-grain mountain ricegrass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; Yukon Territory to Washington, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Open coniferous woods.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Panicum capillarewitchgrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist and irrigated areas, along streams and around ponds.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
ssp. capillare – common panicgrass, witchgrass
Panicum dichotomiflorumfall panicum
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlanitc Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed, often wet sites including stream banks and roadsides.
Origin: Introduced from eastern and central Washington
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
ssp. dichotomiflorum – fall panicum, western witchgrass
Panicum giblinianum
Origin: Native
Panicum miliaceummillet
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Abandoned fields, roadsides, waste ground.
Origin: Introduced from Asia
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
ssp. miliaceum – broomcorn, hog millet, panic millet, proso millet
ssp. ruderale – broomcorn, hog millet, panic millet
Panicum virgata
Origin: Introduced from central and eastern North America
Growth Duration: Perennial
Panicum virgatum
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; occurring in scattered locations near Portland, OR and Boise, ID, otherwise east of the Rocky Mountains in central and eastern North America, where native.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Parapholis incurvasicklegrass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, also in the southeastern U.S. and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Mostly coastal, along beaches.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Pascopyrum smithiiwestern wheatgrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Sagebrush, prairie, and mesic alkaline meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Paspalum distichumknotgrass, Thompsongrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly along the lower Columbia River corridor in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Along ditches and streams where the soil is moist much of the season.
Origin: Native
Flowers: August-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Phalaris arundinaceareed canary grass
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America, except for extreme southern U.S., to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Stream banks, meadows, fields, roadsides, irrigation ditches, and other disturbed open places from low elevations to nearly the subalpine.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Phalaris canariensiscommon canary grass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed ground, roadsides, shores, and lawns.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Phleum alpinummountain timothy
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains, also in northeastern North America.
Habitat: Streambanks and meadows at higher elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Phleum pratensetimothy
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, especially moist, open meadows, from coast to midmontane.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. pratense – common timothy
Phragmites australiscommon reed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, including roadsides, often where wet or seasonally moist.
Origin: Native and introduced from Eurasia and northern Africa
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. americanus – common reed
ssp. australis – common reed
Piptatheropsis exigualittle mountain-ricegrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Montana and Colorado.
Habitat: Sandy to rocky soil, mountain meadows to subalpine and alpine ridges and slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pleuropogon refractusnodding semaphoregrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Bogs, stream banks, swampy meadows,and moist, shaded woods, from near sea level toabout 5000 feet elevation in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Poa alpinaalpine bluegrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America; circumboreal.
Habitat: Alpine areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. alpina – alpine bluegrass
Poa annuaannual bluegrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Lawns, fields, parking lots, sidewalks, roadsides, wastelots, prairies and grassy balds, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: March-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Poa arcticaArctic bluegrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Rocky Mountains; circumpolar.
Habitat: Subalpine and alpine areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. arctica – arctic bluegrass
Poa bolanderiBolander's bluegrass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho and Utah.
Habitat: Coniferous forest openings, montane to alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Poa bulbosabulbous bluegrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed areas from the coast to midmontane.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. vivipara – bulbous bluegrass
Poa compressaflat-stem bluegrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Waste ground, roadsides, open woods and meadows, usually where moist.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Poa confiniscoastline bluegrass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington along the coast; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Coastal sand dunes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Poa curtifolialittle mountain bluegrass, Wenatchees bluegrass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central Washington, where endemic to the Wenatchee Mountains.
Habitat: Rocky subalpine and alpine areas, typically on serpentine or ultramafic rock.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Poa cusickiiCusick's bluegrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Saskatchewan and Colorado.
Habitat: Sagebrush plains to alpine meadows and ridges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. cusickii – Cusick's bluegrass
ssp. epilis – skyline bluegrass
ssp. pallida – Cusick's bluegrass
ssp. purpurascens – Cusick's bluegrass
Poa fendlerianamuttongrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Rocky to rich slopes in sagebrush, grassland, and open forest, montane to alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. fendleriana – Vasey's muttongrass
ssp. longiligula – muttongrass
Poa glaucaglaucous bluegrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, and further east to northeastern North America; circumboreal.
Habitat: Alpine areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. rupicola – timberline bluegrass
Poa howelliiHowell's bluegrass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Lowland to montane rocky banks, forested slopes, and disturbed areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Poa infirmaweak bluegrass
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Poa interiorinterior bluegrass, woods bluegrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; Alaska to northern Washington, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, and Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Dry to mesic forest and alpine areas, on mossy rocks and scree.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Poa laxifloraloose-flower bluegrass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Southern Alaska to northwestern Oregon.
Habitat: Moist woods to rocky, open slopes, from near sea level to lower elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Poa leibergiiLeiberg's bluegrass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; south-central Washington to northeastern Nevada, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Lowland to montane mossy slopes and moist rocky sites.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Poa leptocomamarsh bluegrass
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades Range and Olympic Mountains in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; also in Far Eastern Russia.
Habitat: Margins of lakes, ponds, and streams, subalpine to alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Poa lettermaniiLetterman's bluegrass
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades Range in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Mesic to wet, rocky, alpine slopes
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Poa macranthasand-dune bluegrass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the coast in Washington; southern Alaska to California.
Habitat: Sand dunes along the marine coast.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Poa marcidawithered bluegrass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern Vancouver Island to northwestern Oregon.
Habitat: Openings in rich, mesic, generally old-growth coniferous forest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Poa ×multnomae
Origin: Native
Poa nemoraliswoodland bluegrass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Caiifornia; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Mesic, generally shady habitats at lower elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Poa nervosaHooker's bluegrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Alberta.
Habitat: Wet rocks and cliffs to mesic forest slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Poa palustrisfowl bluegrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Sea level to open meadows and forested areas in the mountains, always where moist.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Poa paucispiculaAlaska bluegrass
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades Range and Olympic Mountains in Washington; Alaska to Washington, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Open, mesic, rocky alpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Poa pratensisKentucky bluegrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast: circumboreal.
Habitat: Moist, distrurbed areas from the coast to middle elevations.
Origin: Both native and introduced
Flowers: April-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. angustifolia – Kentucky bluegrass
ssp. irrigata – Kentucky bluegrass
ssp. pratensis – Kentucky bluegrass
Poa secunda
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Grasslands and forest openings from sea-level to the alpine
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. juncifolia – alkali bluegrass, big bluegrass, Nevada bluegrass
ssp. secunda – curly blue grass
Poa stenanthanarrow-flowered bluegrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Meadows and cliffs from middle elevations to the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. stenantha – narrow-flower bluegrass
Poa suksdorfiiwestern blue grass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; south-central British Columbia to central Oregon.
Habitat: Open, rocky ground in alpine areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Poa trivialisrough-stalk bluegrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist deciduous forest, riparian areas, disturbed grassland, and lawns at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. trivialis – rough-stalk bluegrass
Poa unilateralissea-bluff bluegrass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern Washington to California.
Habitat: Coastal bluffs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. pachypholis – San Francisco bluegrass
Poa wheeleriWheeler's bluegrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Dry forest, sagebrush desert, and meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Podagrostis aequivalvisAlaska bent, arctic bent
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to the Olympic Peninsula and Mount Rainier.
Habitat: Bogs and wet places near the coast.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Podagrostis humilisalpine bent, mountain bent
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Subalpine or alpine meadows, stream banks, and moist slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Podagrostis thurberianaThurber's bent
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana and Colorado.
Habitat: Meadows and slopes to lake and stream margins, mostly subalpine or alpine, but down to about 1000 ft elevatin near the coast.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Polypogon interruptusditch rabbit's-foot grass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, also in Idaho, Texas, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from South America
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Polypogon maritimusMediterranean rabbits-foot grass
Distribution: Known from east of the Cascades crest in Klickitat County in Washington; Washington to California, east to Nevada; also in southeastern North America.
Habitat: Shoreline of ponds, lakes and rivers.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Polypogon monspeliensisannual rabbit's-foot grass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet to dry waste areas, including vernal pools where the water is brackish.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Polypogon viridisbeardless rabbit's-foot grass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Texas; also in the northeastern U.S.
Habitat: Shores of streams and rivers, dredge spoils.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Psathyrostachys junceaRussian wild-rye
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where likely more common than specimens or photo evidence suggests; Alaska to Washington, also in the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
×Pseudelymus saxicola
Origin: Native
Pseudoroegneria spicatabluebunch wheatgrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert and ponderosa pine forest openings, occasionally to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pseudosasa japonicaJapanese bamboo
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Forest edge, roadsides, and other disturbed areas at low elevations where escaping from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Asia
Growth Duration: Perennial
Puccinellia distansEuropean alkaligrass, weeping alkaligrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist soil, especially where alkaline.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Puccinellia maritimacoast alkaligrass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Washington; also in northeastern North America.
Habitat: Coastal, salt and brackish marshes, tidelands.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Puccinellia nutkaensisNootka alkaligrass, shining alkaligrass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California; also in northeastern North America.
Habitat: Coastal marine shores, salt marshes, sea ledges, small rocky islands, gravel beaches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Puccinellia nuttallianaNuttall's alkali grass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Minnesota, Kansas, eastern and eastern North America.
Habitat: Coastal salt marshes and inland alkali shores and stream banks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Puccinellia pumilasmall alkaligrass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California; also in the Russian Far East.
Habitat: Coastal mudflats, salt marshes, estuaries, sandy or rocky marine shores.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Redfieldia flexuosablowout grass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where likely planted for dune stabilization.
Habitat: Sand dunes in sagebrush desert
Origin: Introduced from central United States
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sasa palmatabroadleaf bamboo
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; also known from Tennessee.
Habitat: Disturbed lowland areas where escaping from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Asia
Growth Duration: Perennial
Schedonorus arundinaceustall fescue, tall rye grass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Meadowlands, fallow fields an ditch banks.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Schedonorus pratensismeadow fescue, meadow rye grass
Distribution: Occurring in scattered localities on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Meadows, pastures, roadsides, and other disturbed areas, often where moist
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Schizachyrium scopariumbroom bluestem, little bluestem
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, but apparently not in Oregon, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. scoparium – broom beardgras, broom bluestem, little bluestem
Sclerochloa duracommon hardgrass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Scribneria bolanderiScribner's grass
Distribution: Occurring in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; south-central Washington and adjacent Oregon, otherwise southwestern Oregon to California.
Habitat: Dry, sandy to rocky soil, often along roadsides, mostly from the foothills and lower mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Secale cerealecultivated rye
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Secale strictumnarrow rye
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where known only from Whitman County in Washington; also know from Crook County, Oregon.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Setaria faberiChinese foxtail
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from China
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Setaria italicaItalian bristlegrass, foxtail millet
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from China
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Setaria pumilayellow bristlegrass, yellow foxtail
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
ssp. pallide-fusca – cattail grass
ssp. pumila – yellow foxtail
Setaria verticillatahooked bristlegrass, rough bristlegrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Alaska, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Weed of gardens, irrigated areas and wasteland.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Setaria viridisgreen bristlegrass, green foxtail
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: Annual
var. viridis – green bristlegrass, green foxtail
Sorghum bicolorsorghum
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Africa
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Sorghum halepenseJohnson grass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Mediterranean
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spartina alterniflorasaltwater cordgrass, smooth cordgrass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in southwestern Washington Washington to California; also in eastern North America, where native.
Habitat: Mudflats, tidal sloughs, and salt marshes.
Origin: Introduced from the Atlantic coast of North America
Flowers: August-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spartina anglicaEnglish cordgrass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia, Washington, and California.
Habitat: Tidal mudflats and salt marshes.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spartina densifloraChilean cordgrass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Washington;
Habitat: Rocks, gravel, sand, or mud near high tide line.
Origin: Introduced from Chile
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spartina gracilisalkali cordgrass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Alkaline shores, stream banks, meadows, and marshes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spartina patenssaltmeadow cordgrass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington, where known from Jefferson County. British Columbia to California; also eastern North America, where native.
Habitat: Coastal salt marsh near high tide line.
Origin: Introduced from the Atlantic Coast of North America
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spartina pectinatafreshwater cordgrass, prairie cordgrass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; northern Washington to Oregon, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Ditches, ponds, and freshwater marshes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spartina ×townsendiiTownsend's cordgrass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the coast; southwestern British Columbia to western Washington.
Habitat: Tidal mudflats and salt marshes.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sphenopholis intermediaslender wedgescale
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, Navada, and Arizona, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist soil areas, sometimes where disturbed.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sphenopholis obtusataprairie wedgescale
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist soil to standing water, stream and lake margins to grasslands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June--July
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Sporobolus airoidesalkali sacaton
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California and Mexico, east to the Great Plains; introduced in eastern North America.
Habitat: Mesic or damp slopes and flats, often where alkaline, shores, grasslands, vernal pools, and hot springs at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sporobolus composituscomposite dropseed, tall dropseed
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Origin: Native
Flowers: August-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. compositus – rough dropseed
Sporobolus cryptandrussand dropseed
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to southern California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast except in the extreme southeastern U.S.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert, especilly where sandy, to the foothills and grassland.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sporobolus neglectussmall dropseed
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington and California, eastward from the Rocky Mountains to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Dry pine forest, muddy or sandy riverbanks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Sporobolus vaginifloruspoverty dropseed
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Washington and California, east to Idaho and the southwestern U.S.; native from Great Plains east to Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. vaginiflorus – poverty dropseed
Taeniatherum caput-medusaemedusa-head
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert, fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Thinopyrum intermediumintermediate wheatgrass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. barbulatum – pubescent wheatgrass
ssp. intermedium – intermediate wheatgrass
Thinopyrum ponticumEurasian wheatgrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Disturbed areas including roadsides, wastelots, and agricultural fields.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Torreyochloa pallidapale false manna grass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Lowland to subalpine lake and stream margins, bogs, swamps, and marshes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. pauciflora – weak alkaligrass
Tripidium ravennaeravennagrass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southeastern Washington; southeastern Washington to adjacent Oregon, also in Boise, Idaho; California and sporadically eastward to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Triplasis purpureapurple sandgrass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington in the Lower Columbia River area; southwestern Washington to adjacent Oregon; native from southern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains to the Atlantic coast.
Habitat: Sandy riverbanks.
Origin: Introduced from central and eastern North America
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. purpurea – purple sandgrass
Trisetum canescenstall false oat
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist to dry meadows and forest, stream banks, springs, and rocky slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Trisetum cernuumnodding trisetum
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Moist to dry meadows and forest, stream banks, springs, and rocky slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Trisetum spicatumnarrow false oat, spike trisetum
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest throughout Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, further east to the Great Lakes region and eastern North America.
Habitat: Montane forests to alpine slopes in rocky, dry or moist areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Triticum aestivumbread wheat
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Vahlodea atropurpureamountain hairgrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, east across Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Mountain meadows, streambanks, and lake margins to alpine ridges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Ventenata dubiaventenata
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, pastures, crop land, and other disturbed sites.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia and northern Africa
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Vulpia bromoidesbrome fescue
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, southern Great Plains, and eastern North America.
Habitat: From ocean beaches and salt marshes to sagebrush deserts.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Vulpia microstachyssmall fescue
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Balds, prairies, sagebrush desert, and disturbed areas, lowland to montane.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Vulpia myurosrattail fescue, rattail six-weeks grass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Balds, open slopes, grasslands, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Vulpia octoflorasix–weeks fescue
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open, often disturbed areas, lowland to montane.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
var. hirtella – six-weeks fescue
var. octoflora – six-weeks fescue
Zizania palustrisnorthern wild rice
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon and Arizona, east to Idaho and Montana; also in central and eastern North America, where native.
Habitat: Emergent in marshes, lakes, slow channels
Origin: Introduced from eastern and cerntal North America
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
var. palustris – northern wild rice