Covers mushrooms and other non-lichenized fungi that form multicellular fruiting bodies large enough to be seen with the unaided eye.

Browse by scientific name:

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z
Scientific names beginning with C:
Calbovista subsculptasculptured giant puffball, sculptured puffball, warted giant puffball
Description: Calbovista subsculpta has low, somewhat flattened, pyramidal warts; it has a distinct sterile base below the gleba.
Spores: late spring through summer
Calcipostia guttulata
Distribution: Widespread in North America.
Habitat: Coniferous forests.
Substrate: Wood.
Callistosporium luteo-olivaceum
Description: Callistosporium luteo-olivaceum is a distinctively colored, smallish mushroom that grows on well rotted, often mossy, wood any time from spring through fall. It prefers conifer logs and stumps, often is associated with the bark, and fruits singly, as scattered individuals, or in small clusters. Typically the caps are yellow-brown to liver brown, with thin, close, yellow to ocher or olive-tinted gills, and hollow, fibrillose stipe that is similar in color to the cap and has yellowish tomentum at the base. The taste is farinaceous-bitter and the flesh turns violet when dabbed with 3% potassium hydroxide. The spores are colorless with yellow contents when mounted in ammonia.
Habitat: Conifers
Substrate: rotten wood
Calocera corneasmall staghorn
Description: Calocera cornea is a wood-inhabiting jelly-fungus. Its growth in large troops on rotting logs and small size set it apart from the other club-fungi. Microscopically, its spores are divided by a crosswall and are produced on basidia that are shaped like tuning forks or wishbones. It occurs throughout much of the world. C. viscosa is closely related, but is brighter in color, coralloid, and occurs on conifer wood.
Distribution: Broad
Habitat: Occurs on conifer wood
Substrate: Stumps, dead and fallen branches, and logs, in troops
Calocera viscosayellow false coral, yellow tuning fork, coral jelly fungus, yellow staghorn
Distribution: It is common, but rarely abundant, in western North America, as well as in Europe and Asia.
Habitat: Occurs on rotting conifer wood in the forests
Calocybe carneapink Calocybe, pink domecap
Calocybe onychina
Habitat: Occurs with conifers such as Engelmann spruce, subalpine fir, and Douglas-fir.
Caloscypha fulgensblue-staining cup, dazzling cup, snowbank orange peel fungus
Distribution: Although most common in the western mountains, it occurs across North America, as well as in Europe and temperate Asia.
Calvatia cyathiformispurple-spored puffball, vase puffball
Description: Spore case 5– 19 cm across and 8– 15 cm high, often pear-shaped with a tapered sterile base; outer surface at first whitish tan becoming brown, soon cracking irregularly and flaking off as it ages. Sterile base chambered, prominent, occupying most of the narrow lower part of the fruiting body, often persisting as vase-shaped remnants when the spores have been dispersed. Gleba (interior) at first whitish, becoming yellow grayish, finally colored purple-brown as spores mature.
Habitat: Prairie grasslands, fields, and desert communities
Spores: summer to fall
Calvatia fumosa
Description: It is attached to the soil by a persistent white cord that is connected to a pleated base. The white to grayish surface is smooth to roughened or shallowly cracked. The peridium is thick and persistent, eventually breaking open or chewed through by rodents to release the spores. The soft white gleba becomes yellowish then dark brown and powdery. During development it often has a very strong unpleasant odor which seemingly would deter mycophagists seeking to eat them.
Distribution: Common in montane conifer forests during spring and summer
Habitat: Spruce, fir, and other mountain conifers
Substrate: duff (sometimes buried)
Spores: spring through early fall
Calvatia giganteagiant puffball
Substrate: fields, pastures, open woods, cemeteries, on exposed hillsides, along roads, in drainage ditches, etc.
Calvatia lycoperdoidescotton-spored puffball
Calvatia sculptasculptured puffball, Sierran puffball
Calvatia subcretaceasmall warted mountain puffball
Camarophyllopsis foetensstinking fanvault
Description: Camarophyllopsis foetens forms caps that are convex, becoming flat or weakly depressed. The cap surface is smooth, pale gray-brown to brown. The gills are distant, decurrent, and cap-colored. The stem is smooth, tapering to the base, ocher-brown to cap-colored.
Habitat: pasture, mossy lawns, or woodlands
Substrate: moss and grass
Cantharellus cascadensis
Description: Similar to C. formosus in most respects, differing primarily in sometimes subtle details of coloration, bruising reaction, scaliness, and habitat. The cap of C. cascadensis usually exhibits bright yellow hues and a smooth or slightly wooly cap surface. The stipe often is clavate or bulbous. It has only recently been recognized as a species, so its distribution has not yet been well worked out, although it can occur in at least some of the same places as other PNW chanterelles.
Distribution: Broad
Habitat: Moist woodland environments
Cantharellus formosusgolden chanterelle, Pacific chanterelle, Pacific golden chanterelle, yellow chanterelle
Description: The species epithet formosus means “finely formed” or “beautiful” and this certainly is descriptive of many of our golden chanterelles. The fruitbodies are often large for a chanterelle, and have a dull orange to brownish orange cap that readily bruises brownish and often is finely scaly. The fertile ridges often are deep and relatively thin; they are usually pale orange-yellow but may have a pinkish cast. The stipe usually is fairly slender and tapered downward.
Distribution: Broad Abundant through moist portions
Habitat: Moist ground
Cantharellus roseocanusrainbow chanterelle
Description: Cap 3– 12 cm across; more or less plano-convex when young (often with an inrolled margin), becoming flat or shallowly depressed, with a wavy and irregular margin; tacky when wet but soon dry; pale yellow to egg-yolk yellow or orange when fresh, but often fading to very pale yellow or nearly whitish when exposed to sunlight; with a pale to dark pink bloom when young, especially near the margin. False gills well developed; running down the stem; frequently cross-veined; bright, intense orange (usually contrasting markedly with the cap surface). Stalk 2– 5 cm long; up to 2.5 cm thick; variable in shape but often stocky; smooth; colored like the cap before it fades or colored like the false gills. Flesh whitish; unchanging when sliced; solid; odor fragrant and sweet, reminiscent of apricots; taste mild to slightly fruity. Spore print pale orange-yellow.
Distribution: Western Moist, coastal or mountain environments
Habitat: It seems to be associated primarily with spruce, occurring with Sitka spruce and shore pine near the coast and with Engelmann spruce in the mountains.
Cantharellus subalbiduswhite chanterelle
Distribution: Western Forests containing Douglas-fir and hemlock
Habitat: Favors old-growth forests; Douglas-fir and hemlock.
Catathelasma imperialeimperial cat, imperial mushroom
Catathelasma ventricosumswollen-stalked cat
Distribution: Catathelasmas usually occur on calcareous soils in conifer forests, often in large local populations, forming arcs or rings of fruitbodies.
Cenangium ferruginosumpine die-back
Ceriporia spissaorange poria
Ceriporia tardamauve waxpore
Description: Ceriporia tarda is a thin, soft, effused species, consisting of little more than a pore surface surrounded by a narrow, sterile margin. It typically grows in small patches that often coalesce to form larger fruitbodies. The color varies from cream to rose-pink, mauve or pinkish violet, becoming duller with age.
Habitat: woodland
Substrate: on the underside of fallen branches and logs
Cerrena unicolorgray polypore, mossy maze polypore
Chalciporus piperatoides
Description: Chalciporus piperatoides is similar in appearance, but the tubes stain bluish and the spore-print is olive rather than brown.
Chalciporus piperatuspepper bolete, peppery bolete
Description: Also known as Boletus piperatus, Chalciporus piperatus is unique among PNW boletes in its overall coloration, small to medium size, and rather slender stipe. The cap is viscid when fresh but may become somewhat fibrillose and cracked in older specimens, reddish brown to rust brown or vinaceous brown, often with a mix of yellowish brown, and sometimes becoming more ochraceous brown in age. The tubes are yellowish to reddish yellow and the pores are angular, red to reddish brown, and darken when bruised. The stipe is rather slender and reddish brown or colored like the cap, except for the base which is covered with bright yellow mycelium. The flesh of the cap is yellowish buff or somewhat vinaceous to pinkish, and in the stipe brownish buff above and bright yellow in the base. The name “piperatus” comes from its peppery taste.
Distribution: It is widespread and can be rather common in some years, but usually is not abundant.
Habitat: woodland
Cheilymenia fimicolaeyelash dung cup
Description: The genus Cheilymenia is characterized by small, stipe-less, flattened saucers bearing conspicuous (under a handlens) eyelash hairs and growing on dung, rich soil, plant debris, or other materials. It appears to be closely related to Aleuria. C. fimicola (= C. coprinaria (Cooke) Boudier) is one of the dung-dwellers, occurring on cow-pies as well as the droppings of wild animals. When fresh the fruitbodies are reddish orange, then they lighten to yellowish orange in age; the hairs are brownish, and all are unbranched.
Distribution: Worldwide
Substrate: dung, manure, or compost
Spores: spring, summer, and fall
Cheilymenia stercorea
Description: Cheilymenia stercorea occurs on mammal dung, and has branched brownish hairs near the base of the cup.
Cheilymenia theleboloides
Description: Cheilymania theleboloides occurs on rotting plant remains, or horse manure and straw; its cups have whitish hairs and are more yellow.
Substrate: rotting plant remains, or horse manure and straw
Cheimonophyllum candidissimumwhite oysterette
Chlamydopus meyenianusdesert stalked puffball
Chlorencoelia versiformis
Substrate: decaying wood; summer and fall
Chlorociboria aeruginascensgreen cups, green stain, green wood-cups
Distribution: Broad Across North America, Europe, and Asia
Spores: spores (5--8 x 1--2 µm)
Chlorociboria aeruginosa
Substrate: Rotting barkless wood
Chlorophyllum agaricoidespuffball parasol
Description: chlorophyllum agaricoides produces a puffball-like fruitbody with a half-internal stem. The cap surface is smooth at first, then scaly, and white to cream, becoming buff to brownish. The inner spore mass is white at first, becoming yellowish to brown. The short stem is cap-colored with an indistinct ring joined to the base of the cap.
Habitat: Grass
Chlorophyllum brunneumshaggy parasol
Choiromyces alveolatushard truffle
Chondrostereum purpureumsilver leaf fungus, silver-leaf fungus
Description: Chondrostereum purpureum is commonly found on hardwood logs, snags, stumps, and rarely on conifer wood. The cap surface is hairy to tomentose, grayish to yellowish buff or pale cinnamon to darker brown, often with a distinct pale edge. Unlike that of polypores, the spore-producing underside is smooth, and is violet to brown-violet and waxy-looking.
Substrate: Hardwood logs, snags, and stumps
Chromosera cyanophylla
Description: The cap and stipe are bright golden yellow and slimy, the yellow contrasting with the lilac color of the young gills. The colors fade quickly to pale yellow or whitish, so young fruitbodies must be found to fully appreciate the beauty of this fungus.
Distribution: North America and Europe C. cyanophylla usually grows in small groups and can be found in fall on rain-soaked conifer logs, as well as spring and early summer on wet conifer logs exposed by melting snow.
Substrate: rain-soaked conifer logs
Spores: Fall, spring, and early summer
Chroogomphus ochraceus
Habitat: Pine forests
Chroogomphus pseudovinicolorrobust pine-spike
Chroogomphus tomentosuswoolly pine spike
Description: Chroogomphus tomentosus is unusual for this group in being dry and somewhat fibrillose-wooly, rather than viscid, which makes it easy to identify once the spore color and decurrent gills have been noted. It is ochraceous orange when young, at which point it could possibly be mistaken for a golden chanterelle, and later may develop wine-reddish or purplish colors. Although it often is said that chroogomphuses associate only with pines, that is not true for C. tomentosus, as it often is found in mixed conifer forests that lack pines. It apparently occurs only in western North America.
Distribution: Occurs only in western North America.
Habitat: Often is found in mixed conifer forests that lack pines.
Chroogomphus vinicolorpine spike, wine-cap
Chrysomphalina aurantiaca
Description: Chrysomphalina aurantiaca (Omphaline luteicolor) is a common bright orange species that often can be found in large groups on rotting conifer logs and stumps. The color fades considerably in age, although usually retaining vestiges of orange, and is difficult to capture accurately on film.
Substrate: Rotting conifer logs and stumps
Spores: Fall and spring
Chrysomphalina chrysophyllagolden-gilled Chrysomphalina, golden-gilled Gerronema, goldgill navelcap
Chrysomphalina grossulaWynne's Omphalina
Ciboria caucus
Description: Ciboria caucus is an almost indistinguishable species on fallen catkins of poplars and hazelnuts.
Ciboria rufofusca
Description: Ciboria rufofusca produces shallow translucent brown cups on slender stipes and, as such, they look like many other small discomycetes. However, their occurrence on cone scales of true firs sets them apart and makes identification easy. The spores are smooth and ovoid (5--7.5 x 3--3.5 µm), sometimes with two oil drops.
Substrate: cone scales of true firs
Spores: spores are smooth and ovoid (5--7.5 x 3--3.5 µm)
Clavaria acutapointed club
Description: Clavaria acuta is a small pure white terrestrial club that grows as scattered individuals or fused pairs or trios. Often the clubs exhibit a translucent stipe with a whiter upper fertile portion.
Habitat: Clavaria acuta usually occurs on bare soil in somewhat disturbed areas.
Clavaria fragiliswhite spindles
Description: Clavaria fragilis produces smooth, tubular or slightly flattened, unbranched fruitbodies with pointed tips. they normally grow gregariously in large clusters. As the common name indicates, they are white, sometimes yellowing or browning at the tips when old.
Habitat: grassland and wodland
Substrate: moss and grass or leaf litter
Clavaria fumosasmoky clavaria, smoky spindles
Origin: Native
Clavaria rosearosy club coral, rose spindles
Description: Clavaria rosea oriduces smooth, tubular or flattened, unbranched fruitbodies that have pointed tips and an indistinct stem. The are bright rose-pink, paler or whitish toward the base. The flesh is hollow and very fragile.
Habitat: grassland or woodlands
Substrate: moss and grass or leaf litter
Clavaria vermicularis
Description: Clavaria vermicularis is very similar to C. actua (microscopically nearly identical) and more common; it too grows on soil, but in dense clusters of usually larger clubs. Its species name comes from the Latin for “worm”.
Substrate: Soil
Clavariadelphus ligulastrap coral, strap-shaped coral
Description: Clavariadelphus ligula is indistinguishable from C. sachalinensis in the field, differing primarily by its shorter spores (12–165 × 35–45 vs 18–24 × 4–6 µm) Because intermediates often can be found, it could be that only one species is involved, in which case the name C. ligula would have priority.
Clavariadelphus occidentalis
Description: Clvariadelphus occidentalis is a similar to C. pistillaris, but paler and usually associating with conifers.
Substrate: Conifers
Clavariadelphus sachalinensisstrap-shaped pestle
Description: Clavariadelphus sachalinensis is one of several small slender members of the genus that are characterized by fruiting from a dense mycelial mat that permeates and binds the substrate and by having narrowly ellipsoid or sway-backed spores. All are initially pale yellow and become pinkish cinnamon to ochraceous cinnamon as they age. The entire upper portion of the club is covered with fertile tissue.
Distribution: Widespread in western and northern North America.
Habitat: Often these species can be found in large troops under conifers.
Clavariadelphus truncatusflat-top coral, flat-topped coral, truncate club coral
Description: The species of Clavariadelphus can usually be told from the other clubs by their larger size, stockier stature, and characteristic ocher to yellow-orange color. C. truncatus produces rather large fruitbodies with a wide flattened cap, which makes it look something like a chanterelle, especially when the fertile surface, which runs down the upper portion beneath the “cap,” is wrinkled. C. truncatus is edible, with a rather sweet taste.
Distribution: Broad throughout the Northern Hemisphere
Habitat: Occurs with conifers
Claviceps purpureaergot, spurred rye
Description: Claviceps purpurea produces miniature, ocher to reddish brow, drumstick-like "fruitbodies," the heads of which are actually sterile stroma in which the true fruitbodies are immersed. These fruitbodies arise from banana-shaped, purplish black sclerotia- propagules that formed in the ears of grain, were shed, and have overwintered on the ground.
Habitat: grassland
Substrate: grass, especially rye
Clavulina amethystinaviolet-branched coral
Clavulina cinereagray coral, ashy coral mushroom
Description: Clavulina cristata has lilac-grayish coloration, wrinkled branched, and less developed branching.
Clavulina coralloidescrested coral, wrinkled coral, white-crested coral fungus
Description: Clavulina coralloides forms fruitbodies that are repeatedly branched. When young, the branches are dull whitish and crested or feathery at the tips, but with age the branches may become gray-tinted and the tips more rounded. The surface may be smooth or wrinkled, and the white, brittle flesh is normally solid.
Habitat: Woodlands
Clavulina rugosawrinkled coral
Description: C. rugosa has white, wrinkled (rugose) branches and only limited branching, especially at the tips.
Clavulinopsis laeticolorhandsome club, golden fairy-club
Distribution: A widespread species, occurring across North America and in Europe and parts of Asia.
Clitocybe albirhizasnowmelt clitocybe, white-stranded clitocybe
Description: Cap 2– 4 cm across; broadly convex, some with a slight depression and others with a slight bump in the center; smooth; mostly whitish tan, some with a pale pink tint, with a white frosty covering that wears off on weathering; margin turned down or under, sometimes with a white rim. Gills attached or running slightly down the stalk; narrow, thin; cream, buff with age. Stalk 2– 4 × 0.5– 1 cm, equal or narrower at the top or middle; whitish, cream, with a frosty coating; with copious white rhizomorphs at the base (dig it up!). Flesh a pale watery buff; odor flowery or floury. Spore print white.
Distribution: Western snowbank mushrooms
Habitat: Melting snowbanks
Spores: late May to early July
Clitocybe alexandriAlexander's funnel
Clitocybe cerussatalead-white clitocybe
Clitocybe deceptivaanise mushroom
Clitocybe dilatatacrowded white Clitocybe
Clitocybe fragransfragrant funnel, slim anise mushroom
Clitocybe gibbafunnel Clitocybe, common funnel, funnel-cap
Clitocybe glacialissnowbank lyophyllum
Description: Cap 2– 5 cm across, broadly convex with a turned-down margin; smooth, greasy or silky dry; silvery gray, with a hoary frosted look, more gray-brown with age. Gills narrowly attached, thin, a bit crowded or not; pale gray to gray-brown. Stalk 2– 3.5 × 0.5– 1.5 cm, equal; silvery pale gray with a hoary coating. Flesh watery gray; odor indistinct. Spore print white.
Distribution: Western snowbank mushroom
Habitat: Snowbanks or in cavities melted out of snowbanks
Spores: late May to early July
Clitocybe maximalarge white Clitocybe
Clitocybe nebulariscloudy clitocybe, clouded funnel
Distribution: A variety of forests, often appearing along woodland trails late in fall
Clitocybe odoraanise-scented Clitocybe, aniseed funnel, blue-green anise mushroom
Clitocybe phyllophilafrosty funnel
Clitocybe rivulosasweat-producing Clitocybe
Clitocybe sclerotoideaparasitic clitocybe
Clitocybe sinopicabrick-red clitocybe
Distribution: Any time of year, often on bare soil
Clitocybe squamulosasmall scaly clitocybe
Distribution: Broad Widespread, often common, and variable species
Clitocybe subditopoda
Distribution: Common in Pacific Coast conifer forests
Clitocybula atrialbablack and white clitocybula
Habitat: C. atrialba is a western species that occurs singly on the (sometimes buried) wood of alder and perhaps other hardwoods.
Substrate: Wood or woody debris
Spores: whitish amyloid spores
Clitopilus prunulusthe miller, sweetbread mushroom
Distribution: Widely distributed in conifer as well as deciduous hardwood forests.
Habitat: Conifer and hardwood forests.
Collybia cirrhatapiggyback shanklet
Collybia cookeisplitpea shanklet
Collybia tuberosaappleseed coincap, tuberous Collybia, lentil shanklet
Coltricia cinnamomeafairy stool
Description: Coltricia cinnamomea has a silky, shiny, reddish brown cap with less well defined zonation than C. perennis.
Coltricia perennistiger's eye
Habitat: Occurs on the ground or on woody debris and is most characteristic of disturbed areas such as trail edges and roadsides in conifer forests.
Coniophora puteanawet-rot
Conocybe apala
Description: Conocybe apala (C. lactea) has a narrow, conical, whitish cap, is extremely fragile, and grows in lawns.
Conocybe teneracommon cone-head, brown dunce-cap
Coprinellus disseminatusfairy bonnet, crumble cap, little helmet, fairy inkcap
Coprinellus micaceusglistening inkcap, glistening inky-cap, mica-cap
Habitat: Hardwood stumps, buried roots, and other organic debris.
Coprinopsis atramentariatippler's bane, common inkcap, alcohol inky, inky-cap
Distribution: Broad
Habitat: Occurs widely in many natural and disturbed habitats, including gardens and other urban settings
Coprinopsis cinereagray shag
Coprinopsis lagopushare's foot inkcap
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Global.
Habitat: On compost, wood chips, horse manure, etc.
Origin: Native
Coprinopsis niveasnowy inkcap
Habitat: Grows on dung, primarily of cattle.
Coprinus comatusshaggy inkcap, lawyer's-wig, shaggy-mane
Coriolopsis gallicabrownflesh bracket
Cortinarius absarokensis
Habitat: Subalpine forests
Substrate: Willow
Cortinarius acutus
Distribution: C. acutus occurs in nutrient-poor conifer forests, often on moist sites in litter, and can be found throughout the north temperate regions.
Cortinarius alboviolaceussilvery-violet cortinarius, pearly webcap
Cortinarius aurantiobasis
Habitat: C. aurantiobasis tends to occur in wetter habitats with conifers, often near western hemlock and/or Sitka spruce, and frequently among sphagnum or other mosses.
Cortinarius brunneus
Habitat: Conifer forests
Cortinarius callisteustawny webcap
Cortinarius camphoratusgoatcheese webcap
Description: Cortinarius camphoratus is a completely blue-violet species with a very strong disagreeable odor, not unlike rotting potatoes.
Cortinarius caninus
Spores: summer
Cortinarius caperatusgypsy, gypsy mushroom
Distribution: Common in certain years in the PNW, but becomes less abundant inland and to the south
Cortinarius cinnamomeuscinnamon Cort, cinnamon webcap
Cortinarius clandestinus
Habitat: Western conifer forests, extending from lower elevations into the higher mountains
Cortinarius collinitusbelted slimy Cortinarius
Cortinarius colymbadinus
Habitat: high-elevation conifer forests near melting snowbanks
Spores: early spring
Cortinarius crassusstout webcap
Cortinarius croceus
Distribution: Common and widespread
Habitat: C. croceus occurs throughout north temperate forests and into alpine and arctic areas. It grows with various conifers, as well as hardwoods including beech, birch, and willow.
Cortinarius cupreorufuscopper-red webcap
Cortinarius cyanitesblushing webcap
Cortinarius decipienssepia webcap
Cortinarius everniussilky webcap
Cortinarius gentilisdeadly cortinarius, goldband webcap
Distribution: Broad
Habitat: C. gentilis has a broad ecological range, occurring in moist environments as well as drier, upland conifer sites. During the summer in the western mountains it can be very common, often fruiting in groups, sometimes from well rotted woody debris.
Cortinarius glandicolor
Description: Cortinarius glandicolor is similar to C. brunneus, but has more slender fruitbodies and is less likely to have a distinct ring-zone on the stipe.
Habitat: Conifer forests
Cortinarius glaucopusbulbous Cortinarius, blue-foot webcap
Cortinarius hinnuleusearthy webcap
Cortinarius infractussooty olive Cortinarius, bitter webcap
Cortinarius iodesspotted Cort, viscid violet Cort
Cortinarius lanigerbrown cortinarius, hoary webcap, woolly webcap
Distribution: Widespread, but variable in its fruiting, in some years being rather common and in others being absent.
Habitat: C. laniger is characteristic of boreal and montane conifer forests.
Cortinarius magnivelatus
Description: Cortinarius magnivelatus appears to be one of the more widespread species. It is rather thick-fleshed and tough, and at first white overall because of the heavy veil that covers the stipe and gills. In age the cap develops yellowish to brownish colors. The gills are white to grayish then brown from the spores, and often forked near the stipe. The stipe is rather long and bulbous with a slightly tapered base. The veil is persistent, often covers much of the stipe, and is firmly attached to the edge of the cap. The flesh is white, and the odor is not distinctive. The spores are rather large, up to 12 um long, and strongly ornamented.
Cortinarius malachius
Description: C. malachius is somewhat similar to C. alboviolaceus but it has a grayish white to grayish brown cap that may have lilac colors when young, and with a finely scaly surface when dry.
Cortinarius montanus
Description: Cortinarius montanus varies in color but is usually fairly easy to recognize. As with many phlegmaciums it is medium-sized to large and rather fleshy with a distinct bulbous base that is covered at first by a distinct pale yellow-green veil and basal mycelium. Typically the cap is viscid, variegated and spotted hazel brown to deep brown with light yellowish olive colors on the margin, and typically becomes more brownish in older specimens. The flesh is whitish or tinged with the colors of the cap, and in the stipe is whitish in the center and bluish near the surface; the odor is not distinctive. The gills are close, rather narrow and light yellowish olive to olive at first, eventually becoming more brownish. The stipe is bluish to grayish blue beneath white silky fibrils when fresh and sometimes discolors purplish when handled. The spores are elliptical and distinctly ornamented.
Distribution: Cortinarius montanus can be very common and widespread, but often occurs as one or a few fruitbodies at a time.
Habitat: Common in older, cool, moist conifer forests.
Cortinarius mucifluusslimy webcap
Habitat: Moist conifer forests
Cortinarius mucosusslimy cortinarius, orange webcap
Description: Cortinarius mucosus has a white stipe that most frequently occurs with pines.
Habitat: Pines
Cortinarius multiformis
Habitat: Acidic conifer forests
Cortinarius muscigenus
Description: Cortinarius muscigenus is a cylindrical-stiped species with a viscid cap and stipe classified in subgenus Myxacium. The myxaciums have a universal veil composed of patches and fibrils that is covered with gelatinous material when fresh and that, in most species, breaks into bands and patches as the stipe elongates. These species can be split into two groups based on the presence or absence of clamp connections. C. muscigenus is a member of the former group, which is related to the secotioid species Thaxterogaster pinguis. It is a medium to large species with a strongly gelatinous, brownish orange to brownish red or ochraceous brown cap, which often is darkest in the center and striate near the edge. The flesh is fibrous, white to yellowish, and typically turns brownish in the lower stipe. The gills are grayish white or grayish brown then cinnamon in age. The stipe is whitish, except for the inner veil which is typically bluish violet, sometimes very faintly so. The spores are almond-shaped and coarsely ornamented.
Distribution: C. muscigenus varies in abundance from year to year, and in some seasons can be very common.
Habitat: mid- to high elevation conifer forests
Cortinarius mutabilispurple-staining cortinarius
Habitat: Occurs in a variety of habitats with different conifers and is more frequent in moist areas. Most commonly found along the coast, especially with Sitka spruce.
Cortinarius neosanguineusblood-red cortinarius, northern red-dye, blood-red webcap
Cortinarius olympianus
Distribution: Varies in abundance from year to year
Habitat: Low to mid-elevation conifer forests
Cortinarius pallidifoliuspale cortinarius
Cortinarius percomisfragrant Cortinarius
Cortinarius pluvius
Origin: Native
Cortinarius porphyropus
Description: Cortinarius porphyropus is a purple-staining species that occurs in the PNW in mixed woods.
Cortinarius pseudobulliardoides
Distribution: Northern hemisphere.
Habitat: Coniferous forests, under Abies, Picea, Pinus and Tsuga.
Substrate: Soil.
Cortinarius purpurascensbruising webcap
Description: Cortinarius purpurascens has a viscid ocher-brown to red-brown or darker brown cap with a violet stipe and gills, and a bulbous base with a rim; in our region, it is most commonly found along the coast, especially with Sitka spruce.
Cortinarius rubellusdeadly webcap
Cortinarius salor
Habitat: C. salor is found in a wide range of forest types
Cortinarius smithiiwestern red-capped Cortinarius, western red-dye
Cortinarius subtortusincense webcap
Cortinarius talushoney webcap
Habitat: Subalpine forests
Cortinarius traganuspungent Cort, lilac conifer Cortinarius, gassy webcap
Distribution: Broad
Habitat: Abundant in the far-western mountane and boreal regions, but is much less frequent in the Rocky Mountains.
Cortinarius trivialisearly Cortinarius
Cortinarius vanduzerensispointed Cortinarius
Distribution: Common
Habitat: Coastal conifer forests from northern California to southern Canada.
Cortinarius variicolorcontrary webcap
Cortinarius variosimilis
Description: Cortinarius variosimilis is a close, but distinct, relative of C. varius of Europe. In many ways, it is a pale form of the latter, lacking its distinctly bright lilac-blue gills and the strong yellow-brown to orange-brown colors of the cap. C. variosimilis has a yellow-brown cap often with white veil remnants along the edge, the gills are pale lilac or almost lack lilac color, and become gray-brown. The stipe is clavate, white or pale pinkish buff, and often coated with wooly white veil material. Potassium hydroxide turns the white flesh bright yellow.
Distribution: Broad
Habitat: Western North America, occurring both in Rocky Mountain spruce-fir forests and the forests of the Cascades and coastal ranges.
Cortinarius venetus var. montanus
Description: Cortinarius venetus var. montanus can be found in our region with conifers; its color is more olive-green to yellow-green, the cap is finely tomentose when fresh, and it has a sulfur-yellow veil when young. It has rounded, finely ornamented spores and fluoresce bright yellow in ultraviolet light.
Cortinarius vernicosus
Substrate: Conifer
Spores: Spring
Cortinarius vibratilis
Habitat: Common in conifer forests
Cortinarius violaceusviolet Cort, violet Cortinarius, violet webcap
Distribution: In some years it is difficult to find but in general it is commonly encountered, but usually in small numbers.
Habitat: Widespread in older forests in PNW region, but much less common in the interior mountains than nearer the coast.
Cotylidia diaphanastalked Stereum
Cotylidia pannosawoolly rosette
Craterellus cornucopioidesangel-of-death, black chanterelle, fairy's loving cup, horn-of-plenty, black trumpet, trumpet-of-death
Description: thin-flashed caps that are funnel or trumpet shaped and hollow (deeply incurved margin). Surface has a texture of felt to scrufy-scaly. Coloration is gray-brown to black and continues from the cap to the hollow stem. The stipe is smooth to slightly wrinkled, brown to gray or same as cap, with decurrent wrinkles.
Habitat: In mossy woodland
Substrate: grows upon the ground
Craterellus tubaeformisfunnel chanterelle, trumpet chanterelle, winter chanterelle, winter craterelle, yellow-foot, yellowlegs
Description: Small, slender, trumpet-shaped chanterelle with a brownish or orange-brown cap, hollow stipe, and penchant for growing on mossy rotten wood. It has a long fruiting season although, in most of the PNW, it is not common in winter.
Distribution: Western West Coast
Habitat: Moist forest; woodland
Substrate: Mossy rotten wood
Crepidotus epibryuslittle white crep
Crepidotus mollisjelly crep, flabby Crepidotus, peeling oysterling
Crucibulum laevecommon bird's nest fungus, yellow bird's nest fungus, common birds' nest, white-egg bird's nest
Cryptoporus volvatuscryptic globe fungus, veiled polypore
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington. Alaska to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Origin: Native
Cudonia circinanscommon Cudonia
Distribution: Widespread in North America, Europe, and Asia.
Cudoniella clavus
Distribution: It is widespread, but not particularly common.
Substrate: C. clavus occurs in spring and early summer on very wet plant debris, such as cones and twigs, often at least partly submerged in running water.
Cuphophyllus recurvatuslittle brown waxy-cap
Distribution: North America
Habitat: Grassy areas and under conifers.
Substrate: Soil.
Cyathus ollafield bird's nest, deep splashcup
Cyathus stercoreussplash-cup bird's-nest, dung-loving bird's-nest fungus, dung bird's nest
Cyathus striatusfluted bird's-nest, streaked bird's-nest, splash cups, ribbed splashcup
Habitat: It can be common in gardens where woody materials have been added to the planting beds.
Substrate: Cyathus striatus occurs in a number of different habitats on decaying plant materials such as wood chips, small branches, and needles.
Cyphellostereum laeve
Substrate: It occurs on mosses, usually hair caps (Polytrichum spp.) and is common in late summer and fall in our moist conifer forests, especially along trails and other areas where mossbeds are found.
Spores: colorless, non-amyloid, smooth, rounded, and 4--5 x 2.5--3 μm
Cystoderma amianthinumpure Cystoderma, unspotted Cystoderma, saffron parasol, earthy powdercap
Cystoderma fallaxconifer Cystoderma
Distribution: Only in North America
Habitat: It occurs in a variety of habitats, including conifer, mixed, and hardwood forests on litter, humus, rotting wood, and in mosses.
Cystodermella cinnabarinavermilion Cystoderma, cinnabar powdercap
Cystolepiota bucknalliililac dapperling, Bucknall's Lepiota
Cytidia salicinascarlet-splash