Page authors: Don Knoke, David Giblin
Viola tricolor
Johnny jump-up

Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.

Habitat: Disturbed areas near cultivated setting in towns and cities, where escaping cultivation.

Flowers: April-September

Origin: Introduced from Europe

Growth Duration: Annual

Conservation Status: Not of concern

Pollination: Bumblebees, bees, flies


Variable, glabrous or puberulent, annual or biennial, low or short plant.


Leaves oval to broadly lanceolate, mostly basal; stipules leaf-like, pinnately lobed, the end lobe longer.


Flowers 10-25 mm. long, the spur long; petals violet or yellow or both, longer than the sepals.


Fruit a 3-valved capsule, ovary superior, placentation parietal.

Accepted Name:
Viola tricolor L.
Publication: Sp. Pl. 2: 935-936. 1753.

Synonyms & Misapplications:
(none provided)
Additional Resources:

PNW Herbaria: Specimen records of Viola tricolor in the Consortium of Pacific Northwest Herbaria database.

WA Flora Checklist: Viola tricolor checklist entry.

OregonFlora: Viola tricolor information.

E-Flora BC: Viola tricolor atlas page.

CalPhotos: Viola tricolor photos.

USDA Plants: Viola tricolor information.

5 photographs:
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