Page authors: Don Knoke, David Giblin
Viola adunca
early blue violet, wild dog violet

Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.

Habitat: Dry to moist meadows and open woods, from the lowlands to subalpine areas.

Flowers: April-August

Origin: Native

Growth Duration: Perennial

Conservation Status: Not of concern

Pollination: Bumblebees, bees, flies


Glabrous to densely puberulent perennial from slender rhizomes, from stemless to 10 cm. tall.


Leaves short- to long-petiolate, the blade cordate-ovate to lance-ovate, with fine, rounded teeth, 1-3 cm. long; stipules liner-lanceolate, 3-10 mm. long, entire to remotely slender-toothed.


Flowers 5-15 mm. long, the spur on the lowest petal slender, over half the length of the petal; petals blue to deep violet, the lower three with a whitish base penciled in violet, the lateral pair white-bearded; style head bearded with thick hairs. Some flowers also cleistogamous (do not open up but do self-pollinate and produce seed).


Fruit a 3-valved capsule, ovary superior, placentation parietal.

Accepted Name:
Viola adunca Sm.
Publication: Cycl. [A. Rees], (London ed.) 37: Viola n. 63. 1817.

Synonyms & Misapplications:
Viola adunca Sm. ssp. adunca [JPM2]
Viola adunca Sm. var. adunca [HC, IFBC]
Viola adunca Sm. var. bellidifolia (Greene) H.D. Harr. [HC]
Viola adunca Sm. var. cascadensis (M.S. Baker) C.L. Hitchc. [HC]
Viola adunca Sm. var. uncinulata (Greene) C.L. Hitchc. [HC]
Additional Resources:

PNW Herbaria: Specimen records of Viola adunca in the Consortium of Pacific Northwest Herbaria database.

WA Flora Checklist: Viola adunca checklist entry.

OregonFlora: Viola adunca information.

E-Flora BC: Viola adunca atlas page.

CalPhotos: Viola adunca photos.

USDA Plants: Viola adunca information.

78 photographs:
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