Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across much of North America; circumboreal.
Habitat: Mesic habitats, from sea level to subalpine.
Growth Duration: Perennial
Conservation Status: Not of concern
Pollination: Ants, bees, flies, butterflies, beetles, wasps
Perennial herbs from creeping rhizomes, the numerous, erect stems 2-8 dm. tall, short-bearded just below the nodes, otherwise glabrous or slightly roughened.
Leaves in whorls of 4, sessile, glabrous or scabrous, lanceolate or nearly linear, 1.5-4.5 cm. long, 3-nerved, often bearing axillary, leafy, sterile branches.
Flowers numerous in terminal panicles; calyx obsolete; corolla rotate, white or creamy white, 3.5-7 mm. wide, the 4 lobes much longer than the tube; ovary 2-celled, inferior.
Fruit dry, about 2 mm. long, glabrous or pubescent with inconspicuous, straight hairs.