Orobanchaceae
Broom-Rape Family
13 genera
47 species
24 subspecies and varieties
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Aphyllon californicumCalifornia broomrape
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to Baja California, also east of the Cascades crest in Oregon.
Habitat: Coastal and sub-coastal, or in meadows inland, parasitic on Asteraceae but not on Artemisia tridentata.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
ssp. californicum – California broomrape
ssp. grayanum – Gray's California broomrape
Aphyllon corymbosumflat-topped broomrape
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and the Canadian Great Plains.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert areas, parasitic mainly on Artemisia tridentata.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
ssp. corymbosum – flat-topped broomrape
ssp. mutabile – flat-topped broomrape
Aphyllon fasciculatumclustered broomrape
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains and the Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Dry, open places, valleys to montane, parasitic exclusively on Artemisia.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Aphyllon franciscanumclustered broomrape
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to Baja California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Texas.
Habitat: Open areas from low to middle elevations. Parasitic on Eriogonum, Eriophyllum lanatum, and Phacelia, also other taxa outside of Washington, but never Artemisia.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Aphyllon ludovicianumLouisiana broomrape, Suksdorf's broomrape
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains of Canada and the U.S.
Habitat: Dry, open, often sandy areas, parasitic on Artemisia, Chrysopsis, and other woody Asteraceae.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Aphyllon pinorumpine broomrape, pinewoods broomrape
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to northern Idaho, Nevada and New Mexico.
Habitat: Montane coniferous forest, parasitic on Holodiscus.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Aphyllon purpureum
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta and the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: From lowland to montane, often where open and seasonally moist, parasitic mainly on Asteraceae, Saxifragaceae, and Sedum.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Bellardia viscosayellow glandweed
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California; also in south-central U.S.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, pastures, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia.
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Castilleja ambiguapaintbrush owl-clover
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the coast in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Margins of coastal salt marshes and brackish areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
var. ambigua – salt-marsh paintbrush
Castilleja attenuataattenuate paintbrush, valley-tassels
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California and Arizona.
Habitat: Drier areas at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Castilleja cervinadeer paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; British Columbia to Washington, east to northern Idaho, and possibly western Montana.
Habitat: Grasslands and woodlands at moderate to mid-elevations
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Castilleja chambersiiChambers's Indian paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington in Pacific County; southwestern Washington to northwestern Washington.
Habitat: Forest openings, embankments, and rock outcroppings typically where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Castilleja cryptanthaobscure paintbrush
Distribution: Endemic to Mt. Rainier National Park and immediate vicinity in Washington.
Habitat: Moist subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Castilleja cusickiiCusick's paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Nevada, east to Alberta, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Open areas, lower valleys to subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Castilleja elmeriElmer's paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington from the Wenatchee Mountains and northward; south-central British Columbia to Kittitas County in Washington.
Habitat: Moist, open slopes at middle elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Castilleja hispidaharsh paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to southwestern Alberta and Montana.
Habitat: Grassy slopes and forest openings, from sea level to moderate elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. acuta – acute paintbrush, harsh paintbrush
var. hispida – harsh paintbrush
Castilleja levisectagolden paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washngton; Vancouver Island to the Willamette Valley of Oregon.
Habitat: Meadows and prairies at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Castilleja litoraliscoast paintbrush, Pacific paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in southwestern Washington; southwestern Washington to California.
Habitat: Seaside bluffs, coastal scrub, dune swales, possibly parasitic on Gaultheria shallon.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Castilleja lutescensyellow paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in eastern Washington; eastern Washington to northeastern Oregon, east to northwestern Montana.
Habitat: Low, dry grasslands and woodlands, occasionally to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Castilleja miniatacommon paintbrush, scarlet paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Mountain meadows and slopes; also on coastal bluffs; widespread and common.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. dixonii – Dixon's paintbrush
var. miniata – scarlet paintbrush
Castilleja minorannual paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; south-central British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Alkaline marshes and meadows, mostly at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
var. exilis – seep paintbrush
Castilleja parviflorasmall-flowered paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta.
Habitat: Subalpine meadows and forest openings at high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. albida – mountain Indian paintbrush
var. olympica – Olympic paintbrush
var. oreopola – magenta paintbrush
Castilleja rupicolacliff paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to Oregon.
Habitat: Rock crevices and rocky slopes, usually above timberline.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Castilleja suksdorfiiSuksdorf's paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest from mainly from Mt. Adams south; In Washington chiefly in the Cascades from Mt. Adams south, occasionally north to Whatcom County; Washington to Crater Lake, Oregon.
Habitat: Subalpine meadows and forests along streams and wet areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Castilleja tenuisthin paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Nevada..
Habitat: Vernally moist meadows and other moist sites, from the lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Castilleja thompsoniiThompson's paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon.
Habitat: Dry sagebrush deserts to high mountain ridges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Castilleja victoriaeVictoria's paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington in San Juan County; Victoria, British Columbia area to the San Juan Islands.
Habitat: Seasonally moist balds.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Cordylanthus capitatusYakima bird's-beak
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Dry, open woods and ridgelines from sagebrush desert to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Euphrasia nemorosacommon eyebright, hairy eyebright
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Alberta and Montana; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, and other distrubed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Kopsiopsis hookerismall groundcone, Vancouver groundcone, poque
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the Puget Sound and outer coast in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Myco-heterotrophic on Gaultheria shallon, which occurs primarily in forest understories, along forest edges, and in forest and meadow openings at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Melampyrum linearenarrow-leaved cow-wheat
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; British Columbia to Washington, east across the northern half of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Forest openings, rocky outcroppings, and wet areas from low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Odontites vulgarisred bartsia
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Orobanche minorhellroot
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Oregon, and reported from Idaho; also in Texas and along the East Coast of the U.S.
Habitat: Lawns, fields, pastures, forest edge, and other grassy areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Orthocarpus barbatusGrand Coulee owl-clover
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington. southern British Columbia to Washington.
Habitat: Dry, open ground in sagebrush-steppe.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Orthocarpus bracteosusrosy owl-clover
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to northern California.
Habitat: Meadows at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Orthocarpus imbricatusmountain owl-clover
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in the Olympic Mountains; British Columbia to Oregon and California.
Habitat: Fairly dry meadows and rocky slopes, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Orthocarpus luteusgolden-tongue owl-clover
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Low ground, from the plains to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Orthocarpus tenuifoliusnarrow-leaved owl-clover, thin-leaved owl-clover
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to central Oregon, east to western Montana.
Habitat: Open, moist or rather dry places, from the valleys and plains to moderate elevtions in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Pedicularis bracteosabracted lousewort
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout the mountainous areas of Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Montana, Colorado and New Mexico.
Habitat: Common in open forests at moderate to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. atrosanguinea – bracted lousewort
var. bracteosa – bracted lousewort
var. flavida – bracted lousewort
var. latifolia – bracted lousewort
var. pachyrhiza – bracted lousewort
var. siifolia – bracted lousewort
Pedicularis contortawhite coiled-beak lousewort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Open wooded slopes and drier meadows at high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. contorta – white-coiled beak lousewort
Pedicularis groenlandicaelephant's head, bull elephant's-head
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest and in the Olympic Mountains in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Seeps, lake shores, wet meadows, and other wet areas from middle elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pedicularis ornithorhynchosduck's-bill, bird's-beak lousewort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washington.
Habitat: Subalpine and alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pedicularis pulchellapretty lousewort
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest, where known only from Chelan County; also occurring in southwestern Montana, where previously thought to be endemic.
Habitat: Alpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pedicularis racemosaleafy lousewort, sickletop lousewort
Distribution: Widely distributed across Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Montana, Colorado and New Mexico.
Habitat: Coniferous forests at mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. alba – sickletop lousewort
var. racemosa – sickletop lousewort
Pedicularis rainierensisMt. Rainier lousewort
Distribution: Endemic to Mount Rainier National Park area in Washington.
Habitat: Moist alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rhinanthus minorlittle yellow rattle
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska to Newfoundland, south to upper Midwest and New England; circumboreal.
Habitat: Moist meadows, forest openings, and roadsides at low to middle elevations, sometimes in subalpine.
Origin: Native and introduced subspecies
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Triphysaria pusilladwarf owl-clover
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Vernally moist, open ground at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual