Ophioglossaceae
Adder's-Tongue Family
4 genera
17 species
3 subspecies and varieties
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Botrychium ascendensupswept moonwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado.
Habitat: Montane to subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Spores: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Botrychium campestrefield moonwort
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Subalpine meadows and scree, or rarely under Thuja plicata.
Origin: Native
Spores: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. lineare – narrow-leaf grapefern, slender moonwort
Botrychium crenulatumdainty moonwort, scalloped moonwort
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado, rarely to Minnesota and Ontario.
Habitat: Edges of montane fens, wet meadows, or seeps, often in dense vegetation or shade
Origin: Native
Spores: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Botrychium hesperiumwestern moonwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Mesic, often gravelly, montane to subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Spores: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Botrychium lanceolatumlance-leaved grapefern, red triangle moonwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washington, and through the Rocky Mountains to New Mexico; circumboreal.
Habitat: Moist or wet places in the mountains, occasionally to high elevations
Origin: Native
Spores: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Botrychium michiganenseMichigan moonwort
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; British Columbia to Washington, east to Montana and Wyoming, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and Quebec.
Habitat: Mesic montane meadows.
Origin: Native
Spores: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Botrychium minganenseMingan moonwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Colorado and to Maine across the northern tier of states
Habitat: Mesic, montane to subalpine meadows, and seeps, and in duff under Thuja plicata.
Origin: Native
Spores: June-Agust
Growth Duration: Perennial
Botrychium montanumwestern goblin, mountain moonwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana
Habitat: Moist duff under Thuja plicata or Calocedrus decurrens, occasionally also fens and moist subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Spores: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Botrychium neolunariacommon moonwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Mesic, montane to subalpine meadows and vegetated scree.
Origin: Native
Spores: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Botrychium paradoxumparadox moonwort, two-spiked moonwort
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern Canada to Utah and Colorado, w to central Washington, northeast Oregon, and disjunct in California.
Habitat: Montane to subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Spores: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Botrychium pedunculosumstalked moonwort
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to northwestern Montana, and in eastern Canada.
Habitat: Mesic, montane meadows to dense forests.
Origin: Native
Spores: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Botrychium pinnatumnorthwestern moonwort, St. John
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist subalpine meadows to closed forests, often near seeps.
Origin: Native
Spores: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Botrychium simplexleast moonwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; also from the Great Lakes east to the Atlantic Coast from Canada to North Carolina; circumboreal.
Habitat: Montane to subalpine in moist meadows.
Origin: Native
Spores: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. compositum – least moonwort
var. simplex – little grapefern, least moonwort
Botrychium viridegreen triangle moonwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, also in New Mexico.
Habitat: Moist montane or subalpine meadows to open forest or thickets.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Botrypus virginianusrattlesnake fern, common grapefern, Virginia grapefern
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest and in the northeastern counties in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast; also in Eurasia.
Habitat: Moist woods and thickets, seldom in meadows, from valleys to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Ophioglossum pusillumnorthern adder's-tongue
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Idaho and Montana, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Moist meadows and edges of marshes or fens, from the coast to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Spores: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sceptridium multifidumleathery grapefern
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest and in the northeastern counties in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Open or shaded places, including meadows, wetland margins, and forest edge, from low elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial