Lamiaceae
Mint Family
Synonyms:
Labiatae [HC]
31 genera
51 species
12 subspecies and varieties
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Agastache occidentaliswestern giant-hyssop
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to north-central and northeastern Oregon.
Habitat: Dry, open, often rocky slopes at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Agastache urticifolianettle-leaf giant-hyssop
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Colorado.
Habitat: Dry open slopes and draws, foothills to middle elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. urticifolia – nettle-leaf giant-hyssop
Ajuga reptanscarpet bugle
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east in scattered locations in Idaho and Montana; widespread in central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed ground, often in forest understory.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Clinopodium douglasiiOregon-tea, yerba buena
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana.
Habitat: Coniferous woods, from sea level to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Clinopodium vulgarewild basil
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east across North America in scattered states and provinces.
Habitat: Roadsides, grassy areas, forest edges, and other disturbed areas at low elevation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dracocephalum parviflorumAmerican dragonhead
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon and Nevada, east to the Rocky Mountains; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Open, often moist places at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Galeopsis bifidabifid hemp nettle
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest, where known from Kittitas County in Washington; Alaska to Washington, east across the northern U.S. and Canada to Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, roadsides, and irrigation channels.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Galeopsis tetrahitcommon hemp nettle
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana, east across Canada and parts of midwestern U.S. to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed meadows, roadsides, forest edge, and other moist places.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Annual
var. tetrahit – common hemp nettle
Glechoma hederaceafield balm, creeping Charlie, gill over the ground, groundivy
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist woods and thickets, disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lallemantia peltatalion's heart
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the southeastern counties in Washington; southeastern Washington to adjacent northeastern Oregon and likely western Idaho.
Habitat: Dry slopes, roadsides, fields, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Asia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lamium amplexicaulecommon dead-nettle, giraffehead
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Weed in distrurbed areas, fields, lawns.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Lamium galeobdolonyellow archangel, yellow dead-nettle
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Lowland forest understory, often where disturbed.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lamium hybridumcutleaf dead-nettle
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California; also in southern and eastern North America.
Habitat: Field, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Lamium maculatumspotted hen-nettle, spotted henbit
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Idaho; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lamium purpureumred dead-nettle, henbit
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, lawns, parks, wastelots, and other disturbed areas at lower elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Leonurus cardiacamotherwort, Lion's tail
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Idaho and Montana; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed ground, often in association with cities and towns where escaping cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lycopus americanuscut-leaf water-horehound
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Nonalkaline wetland, riparian, pond and lakeshore sites at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lycopus asperrough water-horehound
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east across much of North America to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Marshes and shores of streams and lakes; tolerant of alkali.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lycopus europaeusEuropean water-horehound
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Wetlands and shorelines.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lycopus uniflorusnorthern bugleweed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Stream banks, marshes and peat bogs, mostly in the mountains, but descending to sea level west of the Cascades.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Marrubium vulgarewhite horehound
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, thickets, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Melissa officinalislemonbalm
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Idaho and Montana; also in central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides and other disturbed habitats.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mentha aquaticabergamot mint, water mint
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California; central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Lake and pond shores, riparian areas, and wetlands.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-September.
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mentha canadensiswild mint
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across Canada and most of the United States to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Common in lake and pond shore margins, riparian zones, wetlands, and other wet areas at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mentha ×piperitapeppermint
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho, further east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Banks of streams and ditches, bottom lands and moist roadsides.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mentha pulegiumpennyroyal
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California; also scattered in eastern North America.
Habitat: Moist, disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mentha spicataspearmint
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Banks of streams and ditches and other damp places.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mentha suaveolensapple mint
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington, where questionably established in the flora; southwestern British Columbia to California; established in other areas of North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, wasteland, and other disturbed sites.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Monardella odoratissimamountain monardella
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Open, dry, often rocky places, low deserts to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. discolor – mountain monardella
ssp. odoratissima – mountain monardella
Nepeta catariacatnip
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington, but in scattered locations on the west side; widely established throughout North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, streambanks, waste places, sometimes in relatively undisturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Origanum vulgarewild marjoram
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Escaped from cultivation along roadsides and in disturbed soil.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Perilla frutescens
Origin: Introduced
Physostegia parviflorapurple dragonhead, western false dragonhead
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest and along the Columbia River in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, and the central U.S.
Habitat: Shores of strams and lakes, marshes, and other low, wet places in the valleys and foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Prunella vulgarisself-heal
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist areas, sea level to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Both native and introduced
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. lanceolata – heal-all, self-heal
var. vulgaris – heal-all, self-heal
Salvia aethiopisAfrican sage
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: A weed of dry waste places and roadsides.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Biennial
Salvia dorriigray ball sage, purple sage
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Utah and Arizona.
Habitat: Dry, open, often sandy or rocky areas in sagebrush plains and foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. incana – fleshy sage, gray-ball sage
Salvia sclareacleareye
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; occasionally escaping in parts of western, central, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Biennial
Salvia yangiiRussian sage
Distribution: Reported from east of the Cascades crest in central Washington; south-central British Columbia to central Washington.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Scutellaria angustifolianarrow-leaved skullcap
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Idaho, Utah, and Nevada.
Habitat: Moist and drier sites, moderate to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. angustifolia – narrow-leaved skullcap
ssp. micrantha – small-flowering narrow-leaved skullcap
Scutellaria galericulatahooded skullcap, marsh skullcapp
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet meadows and similar habitats at moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Scutellaria laterifloramadweed, mad-dog skullcap
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Alaska, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist bottomlands and meadows, low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Stachys arvensisfield hedge-nettle, staggerweed
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California; also along the Gulf Coast and in the northeastern U.S.
Habitat: Weed in disturbed areas, typically where moist.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Stachys byzantina
Origin: Introduced
Stachys cooleyaeCooley's hedge-nettle
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Forest understory, openings, and margins from low to moderate elevations in the mountains; often where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Stachys mexicanaMexican hedge-nettle
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Forest understory, openings, and margins, often where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Stachys pilosamarsh betony, swamp hedge-nettle
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Swamps, marshes, wetlands and riparian areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. pilosa – marsh betony, swamp hedge-nettle
Stachys rigidarigid hedge-nettle
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern Washington to California.
Habitat: Stream banks and moist bottom lands, mostly at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Teucrium canadensewestern germander
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Stream banks, lakeshores, and moist bottom lands, mostly at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. occidentale – Canada germander
Thymus serpyllum
Origin: Introduced
Trichostema oblongummountain bluecurls
Distribution: East of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Moist, open places, often on disturbed soil.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Ziziphora acinosbasil-thyme
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; British Columbia to Washington, east to Montana and Wyoming, also in eastern North America.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial