Dryopteridaceae
Wood Fern Family
2 genera
19 species
1 subspecies and varieties
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Dryopteris argutacoastal fern, marginal wood fern
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to Baja California, east to Arizona, also in north-central Idaho.
Habitat: Mostly in the woods, but occasionally in more open areas.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dryopteris carthusianaspinulose wood-fern, toothed wood-fern
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east across the northern U.S. and Canada to eastern North America.
Habitat: Moist woods and streambanks.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dryopteris cristatashield fern, crested wood-fern
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; Alaska to Idaho, east across northern U.S. and Canada to eastern North America; also in Europe.
Habitat: Moist woods and thickets at middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dryopteris expansanorthern fern, spreading wood-fern
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Moist to wet woods and streambanks.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dryopteris filix-masmale fern
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America; circumboreal.
Habitat: Moist shaded talus and rocky stream banks, lowland to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Spores: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Polystichum andersoniiVancouver holly-fern, Anderson's sword fern
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern Alaska to northern Oregon, northern Idaho, and northwest Montana.
Habitat: Deep woods and thickets in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Polystichum brauniiBraun's holly-fern
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where known only from Pend Oreille County; Alaska to northeastern Washington, east to northern Idaho, also from Great Lakes region to northeastern North America; interruptedly circumboreal.
Habitat: Moist coniferous forest, often where rocky.
Origin: Native
Spores: June-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Polystichum californicumCalifornia
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Moist forest understory at low elevations, typically in rock crevices.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Polystichum imbricansimbricate sword-fern, rock sword-fern
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California, eastern Idaho, and northern Idaho.
Habitat: Drier habitats such as open rock crevices and dry conifer forest, occasionally on serpentine, mostly at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. imbricans – imbricate fern, narrow-leaved sword fern
Polystichum kruckebergiiholly fern, Kruckeberg's sword fern fern
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympics and Cascades mountains in Washington; southeast Alaska to California, east to Montana, Idaho, Nevada and Utah.
Habitat: Open slopes, typically among rocks; tolerant of serpentine.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Polystichum kruckebergii × Polystichum munitumhybrid holly fern
Origin: Native
Polystichum lemmoniiLemmon's holly fern, Shasta fern
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in the northern half of Washington, southern British Columbia to northern California.
Habitat: Open, rocky slopes near timberline in the mountains, chiefly on serpentine.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Polystichum lemmonii × Polystichum munitumhidden sword fern
Origin: Native
Polystichum lemmonii × Polystichum scopulinumserpentine holly fern
Origin: Native
Polystichum lonchitismountain fern, northern holly fern
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, also in the Great Lakes region and northeastern North America; Greenland.
Habitat: Talus slopes and cliff crevices, occasionally in coniferous forests, middle to high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Polystichum munitumcommon sword fern, western fern
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Mexico, east to Montana, and disjunct in South Dakota.
Habitat: Moist coniferous woods, in open to deep shade; from sea-level to midmontane.
Origin: Native
Spores: Spores year-round on fronds
Growth Duration: Perennial
Polystichum munitum × Polystichum scopulinumhybrid sword fern
Origin: Native
Polystichum scopulinummountain holly fern, rock sword fern
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Open slopes, typically associated with rock outcroppings and crevices; tolerant of serpentine.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial