Vascular Plants

Includes all flowering plants, conifers, ferns and fern-allies.


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Scientific names beginning with V:
18 genera
108 species, 30 subspecies and varieties
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Vaccaria hispanicacowcockle
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, railways, fields, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Vaccinium cespitosumdwarf bilberry, dwarf huckleberry
Distribution: Widely distributed in the mountainous areas of Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Moist rocky ridges and meadows, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Vaccinium corymbosumhigh-bush blueberry
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to southwestern Oregon; native from southern Great Plains to eastern North America.
Habitat: Open swamps, sandy margins of ponds and lakes.
Origin: Introduced from central and eastern North Amercia
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Vaccinium deliciosumCascade blueberry, Rainier blueberry, blueleaf huckleberry
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Forest openings and mountain meadows, mid- to high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Vaccinium macrocarponcultivated cranberry, large cranberry
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, also in Idaho; native to eastern North America.
Origin: Introduced from northeastern United States
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Vaccinium membranaceumsquare-twig blueberry, tall huckleberry, thin-leaved huckleberry
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Common in dry to moist coniferous forests and open areas, moderate to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Vaccinium myrtillusdwarf blueberry, low blueberry
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Forest openings at middle elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Vaccinium ovalifoliumAlaska blueberry, oval-leaf blueberry
Distribution: Occurring in forested and mountainous areas on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Alberta and Idaho, in the Great Lakes region, and eastern Canada; eastern Asia.
Habitat: Coniferous forests and open slopes from low elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Vaccinium ovatumevergreen huckleberry
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Coniferous forests at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Vaccinium oxycoccossmall cranberry
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Idaho, across Canada; from the upper Midwest to the Atlantic coast.
Habitat: Usually in sphagnum bogs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Vaccinium parvifoliumred huckleberry
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Moist woods, forest edges and openings, from sea level to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Vaccinium scopariumgrouseberry
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Open, dry forests, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Vaccinium uliginosumbog bilberry, bog blueberry
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Nevada, Utah, Wyoming and Montana, east across northern North America to the Atlantic.
Habitat: Bogs and fens from low elevation to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Vahlodea atropurpureamountain hairgrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, east across Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Mountain meadows, streambanks, and lake margins to alpine ridges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Valeriana columbianaWenatchee valerian
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest, where endemic to the Wenatchee Mountains and adjacent areas.
Habitat: Rocky, open slopes, often on basalt, at mid-elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Valeriana dioicawoodland valerian
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; Alaska to northern Washington and eastern Oregon, east to central Idaho and northwest Montana; circumboreal.
Habitat: Moist places in the mountains, often in wet meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. sylvatica – northern valerian
Valeriana edulistobacco-root, edible valerian
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to eastern Oregon, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: A wide variety of open, somewhat moist habitats, from the foothills to rather high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. edulis – tobacco root
Valeriana occidentalissmall-flower valerian, western valerian
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southeastern Washington; southeastern British Columbia to northern California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist, open or shaded places, mostly in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Valeriana scouleriScouler's valerian
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California
Habitat: Wet meadows and moist woods, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Valeriana sitchensisSitka valerian
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Common in moist areas at mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Valerianella locustalamb's-lettuce
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; eastern half of North America east of the Great Plains.
Habitat: Moist, open places, often in disturbed soil.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Vallisneria americanawild celery, American eelgrass, tapegrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Introduced from British Columbia to Oregon, and in Montana; native in central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Ponds, lakes and quiet streams
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Vancouveria hexandrawhite inside-out-flower
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Olympic Peninsula in Washington to northern California.
Habitat: Moist, shady forest understory to relatively dry forest edge from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Ventenata dubiaventenata
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, pastures, crop land, and other disturbed sites.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia and northern Africa
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Veratrum californicumCalifornia false hellebore
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist meadows and woodlands, lowlands to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. californicum – skunk cabbage, California wild hellebore
var. caudatum – skunk cabbage, tailed wild hellebore
Veratrum insolitumsiskiyou wild hellebore
Distribution: Occurring in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; south-central Washington to northern California.
Habitat: Open prairies to thickets, and forested or open rocky slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Veratrum virideAmerican false hellebore, green false hellebore, Indian-poke
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout the forest and mountainous areas of Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the northern Rocky Mountains; eastern North America from Alabama to Newfoundland.
Habitat: Moist meadows and woodlands, lowlands to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. eschscholzianum – American wild hellebore
Verbascum blattariamoth mullein
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, meadows, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas, often where dry.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Biennial
Verbascum bombyciferum
Origin: Introduced
Verbascum thapsusflannel mullein, great mullein
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, disturbed forest edge, thickets, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Biennial
ssp. thapsus – flannel mullein, great mullein
Verbena bonariensispurpletop vervain
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Disturbed forest edge and wastelots at low elevation.
Origin: Introduced from South America
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Verbena bracteatacarpet vervain
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed open areas in natural and impacted settings including roadsides and waste lots.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Verbena hastatawild hyssop, blue verbena
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Marshes, wetlands, streamsides, and other riparian areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Verbena officinalisherb of the cross, European vervain
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, scattered eastward across the U.S. to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Verbena strictahoary vervain
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; northeastern Washington to western Montana, more common in the Great Plains..
Habitat: Roadsides and other dry, open places.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Veronica americanaAmerican brooklime, American speedwell
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Ditches, slow moving streams, oxbows, and other water bodies, from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Veronica anagallis-aquaticablue water speedwell
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: In or along slow-moving streams and ditches at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Veronica argute-serratabilobed speedwell
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains, also in scattered areas of eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed, open areas at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Veronica arvensiscorn speedwell, wall speedwell
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed ground, gardens and roadsides
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Veronica catenatachain speedwell
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Slow-moving streams and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Veronica chamaedrysGermander speedwell
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, lawns, gardens, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Veronica cusickiiCusick's speedwell
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Open, moist, rocky slopes from subalpine to alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Veronica dissectafeather-leaf kittentails
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic Mountains in Washington, where disjunct; Idaho and Montana to Utah.
Habitat: Stony, subalpine to alpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. lanuginosa – cut-leaf kittentails
Veronica filiformisthread-stalk speedwell
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Weed of lawns and gardens
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Veronica hederifoliaivy-leaf speedwell
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Idaho and Utah; other scattered locations in central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Waste places, disturbed soil.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Veronica ×lackschewitziiLackschewitz's speedwell
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where known only from Yakima County; also reported for Nebraska and California.
Habitat: Slow-moving streams and ditches.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Veronica longifolialong-leaf speedwell
Distribution: Known from only a few localities west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washington, east across Canada and the northern U.S. to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, where escaped from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Veronica missuricatailed kittentails
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Moist forest slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. major – tailed kittentails
ssp. missurica – mountain kittentail
ssp. stellata – starry-tailed kittentails
Veronica officinalisPaul's betony, common speedwell
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, balds, prairies, ditches, forest edge, lawns, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Veronica peregrinapurslane speedwell
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Swales, wet meadows, stream banks, and other moist places, from the lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Both native (var. xalapensis) and introduced (var. peregrina) varieties
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: Annual
var. peregrina – purslane speedwell
var. xalapensis – purslane speedwell
Veronica persicabird-eye speedwell, Persian speedwell
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Lawns and waste ground.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Veronica politagray speedwell
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southeastern Washington; southeastern Washington to adjacent Idaho, also in central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, lawns, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Veronica regina-nivalissnow-queen, round-leaved synthyris
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Forest understory at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Veronica rubrared coraldrops, red kittentails
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Oregon, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Open slopes and dry meadows in the lowlands and foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Veronica schizanthafringe-petal kittentails, fringed kittentails
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympics and Cascades mountains foothills of western Washington; Washington to Oregon.
Habitat: Moist ground at mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Veronica scutellatagrass-leaf speedwell, marsh speedwell, skullcap speedwell
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern North America; Eurasia
Habitat: Wet places and open water, from the lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Veronica serpyllifoliathyme-leaved speedwell
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist meadows and shores, from the lowlands to the subalpine.
Origin: Both native and introduced
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. humifusa – thyme-leaved speedwell
var. serpyllifolia – thyme-leaved speedwell
Veronica triphyllosfinger speedwell
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho; also in the central U.S.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, balds, and grasslands.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Veronica vernaspring speedwell
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Veronica wormskjoldiiAmerican alpine speedwell
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist ground and seeps, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Viburnum edulesquashberry
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, across Canada, the Great Lakes area, and further east to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Moist woods and swamps.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Viburnum ellipticumwestern blackhaw, oval-leaved viburnum
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest chiefly along the southern border in Washington; southern Washington to northern California.
Habitat: Thickets, bottom lands, and open woods at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Viburnum lantanawayfaring-tree
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Washington and Montana, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed thickets, riparian forest, and forest edge.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Viburnum opuluscranberry-bush, high-bush cranberry
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east across Canada and the northern U.S. to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist woods at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. americanum – American cranberry-bush, American high-bush cranberry
var. opulus – European cranberry-bush, European high-bush cranberry
Viburnum tinuslaurustinus
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington;
Habitat: Disturbed areas at low elevation, where escaping from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Vicia americanaAmerican vetch
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest throughout much of Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America, except in the southeastern U.S., to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist forest openings, forest edge, thickets, meadows, prairies, and disturbed areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. americana – American vetch
Vicia craccatufted vetch, bird vetch
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, in scattered locations elsewhere in North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, meadows, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Vicia hirsutahairy vetch, tiny vetch
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Alaska to California, also in Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Roadsides, forest edge, meadows, thickets, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Vicia lathyroidesspring vetch
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in the Puget Sound lowlands in Washington; British Columbia to California; also in southeastern U.S.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Vicia luteayellow vetch
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in the Puget Trough in Washington; Washington to California, also in the southeastern U.S.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, lawns, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Vicia nigricansgiant vetch
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in the coastal counties and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; along the coast from Alaska to California, inland to the Willamette Valley in Oregon.
Habitat: Beach margins and headlands, forest openings, and along streams near the coast.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. gigantea – giant vetch
Vicia pannonicaHungarian vetch
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in the Puget Trough in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Vicia sativatare, common vetch
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, forest edges, thickets, lawns, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
var. angustifolia – tare, common vetch
var. sativa – common vetch
Vicia tetraspermasmooth tare, lentil vetch, slender vetch
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California, also in northern Idaho and western Montana.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, forest edge, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Vicia villosahairy vetch, winter vetch, woolly vetch
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, meadows, grasslands, prairies, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia and North Africa
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Annual
var. glabrescens – hairy vetch, winter vetch, woolly vetch
var. villosa – hairy vetch, winter vetch, woolly vetch
Vinca majorgreater periwinkle
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho, Utah, and Arizona,
Habitat: Disturbed forest understory and edge, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Vinca minorlesser periwinkle
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, also in Montana, and east across the Great Plains to eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed forest understory and edge, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Viola aduncaearly blue violet, wild dog violet
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Dry to moist meadows and open woods, from the lowlands to subalpine areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Viola arvensisEuropean field pansy
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas where escaping from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Viola canadensisCanadian violet, rugose violet
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains, further east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Forest openings, riparian zones, and thickets from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. rugulosa – rugose violet
Viola flettiiFlett's violet, Olympic violet
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington, where endemic to the Olympic Mountains
Habitat: Alpine rock crevices and talus slopes at high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Viola glabellapioneer violet, stream violet
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta and Montana.
Habitat: Moist woods and stream banks, low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Viola howelliiHowell's violet
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Moist woods and prairies at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Viola lanceolatalance-leaved violet
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to southwestern Oregon.
Habitat: Bogs, moist meadows, cranberry beds, and ditches.
Origin: Introduced from eastern and central North America
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Viola langsdorffiiAlaska violet, Aleutian violet
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Peatlands, shores, snowmelt communities, and wet meadows, from lowlands to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Viola macloskeyismall white violet
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington;d British Columbia to California, east to the Atlantic Coast..
Habitat: Boggy and wet ground from low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Viola nephrophyllaLeConte violet, northern bog violet
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist places, especially in meadows and along streams.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Viola nuttalliiNuttall's violet
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Britsh Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Grassland, sagebrush and juniper flats, and moist to dry openings in coniferous forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. bakeri – Baker's violet
var. praemorsa – canary violet, upland yellow violet
var. vallicola – valley violet, yellow sagebrush violet
Viola odoratasweet blue violet
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Sheltered, disturbed areas in somewhat moist soil.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Viola orbiculatadarkwoods violet, evergreen yellow violet, round-leaved violet
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Alberta, Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Open woods, middle to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Viola palustrismarsh violet
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, northeastern North America, and Eurasia.
Habitat: Moist meadows and streambanks, low to mid-elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Viola pluviaerain violet
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Idaho and Montana; Eurasia.
Habitat: Wet areas at low to moderate elevations, including in part to full shade.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Viola purpureapurplish violet
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Open, rocky, fairly dry slopes, moderate to high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. venosa – goose-foot violet, purplish violet
Viola renifoliakidney-leaf white violet
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the north-central to northeastern counties in Washington; Alaska to northern Washington, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America
Habitat: Peatlands, riparian zones, swamps, seeps, and damp thickets.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Viola rivinianadog violet, wood violet
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Lawns, sidewalks, wastelots, and other disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia and northwest Africa
Flowers: March-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Viola sempervirensevergreen violet, redwood violet
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Moist woods from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Viola sheltoniifan violet, shelton's violet
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho; also in Colorado.
Habitat: Coniferous forest understory, often associated with moss-covered boulder fields with well-developed organic layer.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Viola sororianorthern blue violet, northern woodland violet
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Dry to moist forest openings, thickets, meadows, and stream banks at middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Viola tricolorJohnny jump-up
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed areas near cultivated setting in towns and cities, where escaping cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: Annual
ssp. tricolor – Johnny jump-up
Viola trinervatadesert pansy, 3-nerved violet, sagebrush violet
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; north-central Washington to southeastern Oregon.
Habitat: Sagebrush flats and rocky hillsides, often on lithosol, where vernally moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Viola ×wittrockiana
Origin: Introduced
Vitis labruscafox grape-vine
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and in Utah; also in eastern North America where more widespread.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, including forest understory, forest edges, wet areas, and roadsides.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Vitis ripariariver-bank grape
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Idaho; native to central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Moist to wet disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from eastern United States
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Vitis viniferaEuropean grape
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to the Willamette Valley in western Oregon, also in Columbia River Gorge and Hells Canyon.
Habitat: Forest edge, fields, and other disturbed areas where escaping from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Vulpia bromoidesbrome fescue
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, southern Great Plains, and eastern North America.
Habitat: From ocean beaches and salt marshes to sagebrush deserts.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Vulpia microstachyssmall fescue
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Balds, prairies, sagebrush desert, and disturbed areas, lowland to montane.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Vulpia myurosrattail fescue, rattail six-weeks grass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Balds, open slopes, grasslands, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Vulpia octoflorasix–weeks fescue
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open, often disturbed areas, lowland to montane.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
var. hirtella – six-weeks fescue
var. octoflora – six-weeks fescue