Vascular Plants

Includes all flowering plants, conifers, ferns and fern-allies.


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Scientific names beginning with C:
135 genera
531 species, 121 subspecies and varieties
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Index to genera:
Cabomba, Cacaliopsis, Cakile, Calamagrostis, Calamovilfa, Calandrinia, Calendula, Callitriche, Callitropsis, Calluna, Calochortus, Caltha, Calypso, Calyptridium, Calystegia, Camassia, Camelina, Camissonia, Campanula, Canadanthus, Cannabis, Capsella, Caragana, Cardamine, Cardionema, Carduus, Carex, Carthamus, Carum, Cascadia, Cassiope, Castanea, Castilleja, Catalpa, Caulanthus, Ceanothus, Celtis, Cenchrus, Centaurea, Centaurium, Centranthus, Centromadia, Cephalanthera, Cerastium, Ceratocephala, Ceratophyllum, Cercocarpus, Chaenactis, Chaenomeles, Chaenorhinum, Chaerophyllum, Chamaenerion, Chelidonium, Chenopodiastrum, Chenopodium, Cherleria, Chimaphila, Chondrilla, Chorispora, Chorizanthe, Chrysolepis, Chrysosplenium, Chrysothamnus, Chylismia, Cicer, Cichorium, Cicuta, Cinna, Circaea, Cirsium, Citrullus, Clarkia, Claytonia, Clematis, Clinopodium, Clintonia, Cochlearia, Coix, Colchicum, Coleanthus, Collinsia, Collomia, Columbiadoria, Colutea, Comandra, Comarum, Comastoma, Commelina, Conioselinum, Conium, Conringia, Convallaria, Convolvulus, Conyza, Coptis, Corallorhiza, Cordylanthus, Coreopsis, Corispermum, Cornus, Corrigiola, Cortaderia, Corydalis, Corylus, Corynephorus, Cota, Cotoneaster, Cotula, Crassula, Crataegus, Crepis, Crocidium, Crocosmia, Crocus, Croton, Cruciata, Crupina, Crypsis, Cryptantha, Cryptogramma, Cucurbita, Cuscuta, Cusickiella, Cyclachaena, Cyclamen, Cycloloma, Cymbalaria, Cymopterus, Cynodon, Cynoglossum, Cynosurus, Cyperus, Cypripedium, Cystopteris, Cytisus
Cabomba carolinianafanwort
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest, where only known from Clark County. southwestern Washington to California; native to southeastern and eastern U.S.
Habitat: Ponds and irrigation ditches.
Origin: Introduced from southeastern and eastern U.S.
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cacaliopsis nardosmiasilvercrown luina, tall silvercrown
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Meadows, forest edge, forest openings, and light forest understory from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cakile edentulaAmerican sea-rocket
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in coastal counties in Washington; Alaska to California along the coast, native to the Great Lakes region and coastal eastern North America.
Habitat: Along marine water shorelines in sand or gravel.
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
var. edentula – American sea-rocket
Cakile maritimaEuropean sea-rocket
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in coastal counties in Washington; British Columbia to California along the coast, also along the Chesapeake Bay on the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Along marine water shorelines in sand or gravel.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
ssp. maritima – European sea-rocket
Calamagrostis canadensisbluejoint reedgrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Wet places, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. canadensis – bluejoint reedgrass
var. langsdorffii – Langsdorff's jointed reedgrass
Calamagrostis howelliiHowell's reedgrass
Distribution: Occurring in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; south-central Washington to adjacent Oregon.
Habitat: Rocky banks and crevices.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Calamagrostis nutkaensisNootka reedgrass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington along the coast; Alaska to California.
Habitat: In coastal areas in wetlands, forest openings, salt- and freshwater beaches and dunes, and cliffs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Calamagrostis purpurascenspurple reedgrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, and east across the northern Great Plains to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist subalpine meadows and stream banks, often in partial shade.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Calamagrostis rubescenspinegrass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, Montana and Colorado
Habitat: Dry to moist areas, open sagebrush flats to timbered slopes, moderate to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Calamagrostis strictaslimstem reedgrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wetlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. inexpansa – narrow-spiked reedgrass
ssp. stricta – narrow-spiked reedgrass
Calamagrostis tacomensisRainier reedgrass
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic Mountains and Cascade Range in Washington. Washington to northern Oregon.
Habitat: Montane to alpine meadows, seeps, and rocky slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Calamagrostis tweedyiCascade reedgrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in central Washington; central Washington to southern Oregon, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Moist meadows and subalpine slopes, usually in forest edge or understory.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Calamovilfa longifoliaprairie sandreed
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southeastern British Columbia to eastern Washington, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Prairies and foothills, where escaped from soil stabilization plantings.
Origin: Introduced from central and eastern North America
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. longifolia – prairie sandgrass, prairie sandreed
Calandrinia menziesiifringed red maids
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Arizona and New Mexico.
Habitat: Gravelly to heavy soil, usually where vernally moist, at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Calendula officinalispot marigold
Origin: Introduced
Callitriche brutianarrow-leaf water-starwort
Distribution: Reported for Washington, but no specimens seen; British Columbia to Oregon.
Habitat: Flowing streams or quiet waters.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. hamulata – narrowleaf water-starwort
Callitriche hermaphroditicaautumn water-starwort, northern water-starwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east across North America in scattered locations to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Sloughs and streams.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Callitriche heterophylladifferent-leaved water-starwort
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Sloughs and slow-moving, fresh water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
var. bolanderi – Bolander's different-leaved water-starwort
var. heterophylla – different-leaved water-starwort
Callitriche marginatawinged water-starwort
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Ponds, lakes, slow-moving streams.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Callitriche palustrisspring water-starwort, vernal water-starwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Sloughs and slow-moving fresh water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Callitriche stagnalispond water-starwort
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: In streams, ponds, and ditches.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Callitropsis nootkatensisAlaskan yellow cedar, Nootka yellow cedar, Sitka yellow cedar
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades and Olympic Mountains of Washington; Alaska to northern California.
Habitat: Moist areas, generally from middle to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Cones: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Calluna vulgariscommon heather
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, also along the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed, open areas, where escaping from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Calochortus apiculatusBaker's mariposa-lily, pointed mariposa-lily, three-spot mariposa-lily
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the northeast counties of Washington; southeastern British Columbia to northeastern Washington, east to southeastern Alberta, northern Idaho, and western Montana.
Habitat: Dry meadows to sparse or deep woodlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Calochortus eleganselegant cats-ear, northwestern mariposa lily, elegant sego lily
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Oregon and northern California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Grassy hillsides and open coniferous forests, middle to high elvations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. elegans – elegant cat's ear, northwest mariposa lily
Calochortus eurycarpusbig-pod mariposa lily, wide-fruited mariposa lily
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southeastern Washington; southeastern Washington to eastern Oregon, east to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Grasslands and open coniferous forests at moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Calochortus longebarbatuslong-bearded sego-lily
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Yakima and Klickitat counties in Washington; south-central Washington to northern California.
Habitat: Open meadows, low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Calochortus lyalliiLyall's mariposa-lily
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central Washington; British Columbia south along the east slope of the Cascades to south-central Washington.
Habitat: Dry, open coniferous forests at moderate to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Calochortus macrocarpussagebrush mariposa lily, green-banded star-tulip
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Nevada.
Habitat: Dry open forests, hillsides, grasslands and sagebrush, low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. macrocarpus – sagebrush mariposa lily
var. maculosus – sagebrush mariposa
Calochortus nitidusbroad-fruited mariposa lily
Distribution: Occurring in Whitman County in Washington; Washington to adjacent areas of Idaho and northeast Oregon.
Habitat: Meadows at low elevation.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Calochortus subalpinusmountain mariposa, subalpine mariposa-lily
Distribution: Occurring along the Cascades crest in Washington; from Mt. Adams and Mt St. Helens, Washington to the Three Sisters area in Oregon.
Habitat: Open forests in loose volcanic soils, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Caltha biflorabroad-leaved marsh-marigold, twin-flowered marsh-marigold
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascade crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to western Nevada.
Habitat: Open wet area in subalpine and alpine marshes and seepages.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Caltha leptosepalaelkslip
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the western Montana.
Habitat: Wet places in subalpine and alpine regions.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Caltha palustrisyellow marshmarigold
Distribution: Coastal Alaska, south along the coast to Oregon
Habitat: Mostly in coastal bogs
Origin: Both native and introduced populations
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Calypso bulbosacalypso, fairy-slipper, Venus-slipper
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, east across Canada to the Great Lakes region and eastern North America.
Habitat: Mostly in cool, deep shade of moist forests in soil rich in humus, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. americana – calypso, fairy-slipper, Venus-slipper
var. occidentalis – calypso, fairy-slipper, Venus-slipper
Calyptridium roseumrosy pussypaws
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Benton County, Washington, where disjunct from the main range of the species; central Oregon to California, east to southern Idaho and Utah.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert to montane forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Calyptridium umbellatumpussypaws
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Baja California, east to Montana, Wyoming and Utah.
Habitat: Ponderosa pine forest openings to alpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Calystegia atriplicifolianight-blooming morning-glory
Distribution: Occurring along the Cascades crest in the Mount Adams area of Washington; southern Washington to California.
Habitat: Dry, rocky, open slopes or in ponderosa pine forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. atriplicifolia – night-blooming morning-glory
Calystegia ×lucanalarge bindweed
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Thickets, fields, roadsides, shores, wastelots, and other disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Calystegia sepiumhedge bindweed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to Oregon, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Prairies, balds, forest edge, and other open areas generally at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. angulata – hedge bindweed, lady's nightcap
Calystegia soldanellaseashore false bindweed, beach morning glory
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the coast in Washington; British Columbia to San Diego County, California.
Habitat: Coastal beaches and sand dunes, often extending down to the high tide level.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Camassia cusickiiCusick's camas
Distribution: Disjunct in Klickitat County in Washington; northeastern Oregon and adjacent western Idaho.
Habitat: Moist slopes and seeps, often montane.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Camassia leichtliniigreat camas
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Meadows, prairies, balds, and hillsides where moist, at least in spring.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. suksdorfii – Suksdorf's great camas
Camassia quamashcommon camas
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Utah.
Habitat: Open, moist areas, often where dry by late spring, from lowlands to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. azurea – blue camas, prairie camas
ssp. breviflora – eastern camas, small-flowered camas
ssp. maxima – dark camas
ssp. quamash – common camas
Camelina microcarpahairy false flax, littlepod false flax
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Sagebrush, roadsides, ponderosa pine forest openings, and disturbed sites in seasonally moist areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Camissonia contortacontorted pod suncup, twisted suncup
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to Baja California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Sandy soil along the coast and along inland rivers.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Camissonia parvulaLewis river suncup
Distribution: Disjunct in south-central Washington, where occurring east of the Cascades crest; otherwise southeastern Oregon to southern California, east to Carbon County, Montana and Colorado.
Habitat: Open to disturbed grasslands, sandy areas, sagebrush, and scrub forest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Camissonia pusillalittle sun cup
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington. north-central Washington to California, east to southern Idaho and Utah.
Habitat: Dry, sandy slopes in sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Campanula glomerataclustered bellflower
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia, central Washington, and western Montana.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Campanula lasiocarpaAlaska bellflower, Alaska harebell
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in central Washington; Alaska to Washington, east to Northwest Territories and Alberta.
Habitat: Subalpine and alpine rock crevices and heathlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Campanula mediumCanterbury bells
Distribution: Scattered on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, and in Montana; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Open, disturbed areas at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-July
Campanula parryiParry's bellflower, Parry's harebell
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades Range and Olympic Mountains in Washington, where disjunct; central Idaho and adjacent Montana south in Rocky Mountains to Arizona and New Mexico.
Habitat: In subalpine and alpine areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. idahoensis – Parry's harebell
Campanula persicifoliapeach-leaf bellflower
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon and Utah, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Escaping from cultivation; occurring in moderately moist, disturbed soil.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Campanula piperiOlympic bellflower
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in the Olympic Mountains of Washington, where endemic.
Habitat: Open, rocky areas at high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Campanula rapunculoidescreeping bellflower, rover harebell
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Campanula rotundifoliabluebell bellflower, Scotch bellflower, bluebell-of-scotland
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington Alaska to California, east across NorthAmerica to the Atlantic Coast; circumboreal.
Habitat: Open, rocky areas from low elevations to the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Campanula scabrellarough bellflower, rough harebell
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; disjunct in Washington and California from core distribution in Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Open, rocky areas at high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Campanula scouleripale bellflower
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Lowland to montane, dry to mesic forest openings and rocky outcroppings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Canadanthus modestusfew-flowered aster, great northern aster
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in the mountainous areas of Washington; Yukon Territory to Oregon, east to the northern Great Plains and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Streambanks, pond and lake margins, and moist woods at middle-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cannabis sativahemp, marihuana, marijuana
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest, but not likely persisting anywhere; occurring sporadically in other areas of North America.
Habitat: Illegal plantings in forest openings, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas, where escaping from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Asia
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Capsella bursa-pastorisshepherd's-purse
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Weed of disturbed ground.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Caragana arborescensSiberian peashrub
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout the western, central, and northeastern regions of North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas including wastelots, roadsides, and fields.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cardamine angulataangled bittercress, seaside bittercress
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to northern California.
Habitat: Wet ground, especially along stream banks, often in deep woods.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cardamine bellidifoliaalpine bittercress
Distribution: Occurring In the Olympics and Cascades mountains in Washington; Alaska to California, east across Canada to far northeastern North America
Habitat: Subalpine to alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cardamine breweriBrewer's bittercress
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado
Habitat: Stream margins, wet meadows, pond shores, and other riparian areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cardamine cordifoliaheart-leaved bittercress, large mountain bittercress, Lyall's bittercress
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades Range and in southeastern Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Mountain stream banks to subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cardamine flexuosawavy bittercress
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, also in central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed ground, often where moist or shaded.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Cardamine hirsutahairy bittercress, shotweed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, but more common west of the crest; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Montana, and throughout much of eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed ground at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Cardamine nuttalliibeautiful bittercress, Nuttall's toothwort, slender toothwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Seasonally moist soils of forest openings to forest understory, from low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cardamine occidentaliswestern bittercress
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Muddy ground, lake margins, shallow streams, and wet meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cardamine occultawood bittercress
Origin: Introduced
Cardamine oligospermafew-seeded bittercress, little western bittercress
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, but more common west of the crest; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Widespread, but mostly in seasonally wet, open or forested areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Cardamine pensylvanicaPennsylvania bittercress, quaker bittercress
Distribution: Widespread on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east through the Rockies to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist to wet soils, or on the margins of wet areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Cardamine pratensiscuckooflower
Distribution: Currently known only from King County in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to Oregon; more commonly found in northeastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas including lawns and forest edges of urban and suburban areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cardamine umbellataSiberian bittercress, umbellate bittercress
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; Alaska to northern Washington, east to Alberta.
Habitat: Subalpine or alpine cliffs, talus slopes, and wet areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cardionema ramosissimumsandcarpet, sandmat
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the coast in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Sandy beaches along the coast.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carduus acanthoidesplumeless thistle, spiny plumeless thistle
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; British Columbia to Washington, also in California, east to the northern Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: Biennial
Carduus nutansmusk thistle, nodding thistle
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Carduus pycnocephalusItalian plumeless thistle
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington, where known only from Clallam County; Washington to California and Idaho, also in central and eastern U.S.
Habitat: Disturbed, open areas at low elevation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual
ssp. pycnocephalus – Italian plumeless thistle
Carduus tenuiflorusslender flowered thistle, winged plumeless thistle
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in southwestern Washington; Washington to California, also in the eastern U.S.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Carex abruptaabrupt-beaked sedge
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades and west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Springs, moist meadows, and open forest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex albonigrablack-and-white-scaled sedge
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascade and Olympic mountains of Washington; Alaska to Washington, east to and south in the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Alpine areas, high elevation talus and scree.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex amplifoliabig-leaf sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Swamps, bogs and other wet places, lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex angustatanarrow-leaved sedge
Distribution: Occuring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Wet meadows in riparian zones from low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex anthoxantheagrassy-slope arctic sedge, yellow-flowered sedge
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; Alaska to Washington.
Habitat: Bogs and wet meadows from low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex apertaColumbia sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; central British Columbia to southern Oregon, east to Alberta, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Wet meadows, peatlands, floodplains, shores, and marshes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex aquatiliswater sedge
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, east to the Great Lakes and the northeastern U.S.
Habitat: Standing water or saturated soil, foothills to near timberline in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. aquatilis – water sedge
var. dives – Sitka sedge
Carex arctanorthern clustered sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon to California, east to Alberta and Montana; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Wet forest and thickets, marshes, peatlands, shores, and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex atherodesawned sedge, wheat sedge
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America except in the southeastern U.S.; circumboreal.
Habitat: Swales, shores, sometimes in water up to 0.7 m deep.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex athrostachyaslender-beak sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Wet meadows, drying shores, swales, springs, damp disturbed ground, and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex atrosquamablack-scale sedge
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Northwest Territories, Alberta, Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Colorado.
Habitat: Moist to dry subalpine and alpine meadows, fellfields, rocky slopes, swales, and shores.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex aureagolden sedge, pumpkin sedge
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Moist or wet places from the lowlands to near timberline in the mountains
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex bebbiiBebb's sedge
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Riparian zones, wet meadows, shores, and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex bolanderiBolander's sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Rocky Mountains, also in Mexico.
Habitat: Springs, moist slopes, riparian forests, shores, upper margins of salt marshes, and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex breviorPlains oval sedge, short-beaked sedge
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington in eastern Washington; southern British Columbia to eastern Washington, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Lowland riparian zones, sloughs, swales, moist to dry meadows and open forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex breweriBrewer's sedge
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades Mountains from Mt. Adams and south in Washington; south-central Washington to California and Nevada.
Habitat: Volcanic ash, pumice, scree, talus, rocky slopes in the subalpine and alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex brunnescensbrown sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Among dry boulders and talus, moist to wet meadows, streambanks, shores, wet thickets
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. brunnescens – brown sedge
Carex buxbaumiibrown bog sedge, Buxbaum's sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Peatlands, wet meadows, marshes, shores; and circumboreal.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex californicaCalifornia sedge
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, disjunct in northern Idaho.
Habitat: Dry meadows, openings, clearings, peatlands, brushy slopes, and roadsides.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex canescenssilvery sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Wet meadows, peatlands, swamps, shores, springs, and wet thickets.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. canescens – grey sedge, silvery sedge
Carex capillarishair sedge
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America; circumboreal.
Habitat: Shores, peatlands, wet meadows, springs, wet talus, often where limy.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex capitatacapitate sedge
Distribution: Occurring in northwestern and north-central Washington near the Canadian border; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. and east across Canada to the Atlantic Coast; circumboreal.
Habitat: Subalpine and alpine eatlands, shores, and wet meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex chordorrhizacordroot sedge, creeping sedge, rope-root sedge
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east across the northern U.S. and Canda to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Peatlands, shores, and marshes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex circinatacoiled sedge
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic Mountains in Washington; Alaska to Washington
Habitat: Talus, cliffs, subalpine and alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex comosabearded sedge, bristly sedge
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California; scattered in the central U.S. and eastern North America.
Habitat: Marshes and wet meadows from the lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex concinnoidesnorthwestern sedge, tetrastigmatic sedge
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central British Columbia to California.
Habitat: In and about conifer woodlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex cordilleranacordilleran sedge
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Alberta, Montana, and Utah.
Habitat: Shaded thickets, open forest, rocky slopes, often near streams, limy or not.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex craweiCrawe's sedge
Distribution: Known historically (1841) from northeastern Washington; southeastern British Columbia to northeastern Washington, east to Montana and Utah, east to Newfoundland and Georgia.
Habitat: lLmy gravel or ledges, wet meadows, peatlands, and marly shores.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex crawfordiiCrawford's sedge
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington, but also along the coast where introduced in ditches, irrigation ponds and cranberry farms. Alaska to Oregon, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Montane and inland, on shores, peatlands, and moist to wet meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex cusickiiCusick's sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Utah, and Nevada.
Habitat: Wetlands, lake and pond edges, and other wet areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex davyiConstance's sedge, Davy's sedge
Distribution: Known historically (1909) from the Mt. Adams area; otherwise Lane County, Oregon to California.
Habitat: Often sparse montane meadows and slopes, occasional along seasonal runoff channels.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex deflexamountain mat sedge
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado, east across Canada to the Great Lakes region and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Montane to alpine open forest and meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. boottii – northern sedge
Carex densadense sedge
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Seasonally moist meadows, stream banks, wet prairie, springs, open riparian forest, and ditches at low elevation.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex deweyanaDewey's sedge
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; Alaska to northeastern Washington, east to Northwest Territory and south through Montana to Colorado, further eastward to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open or riparian forest, swamps, cliffs, damp thickets, and mesic meadow edges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. deweyana – Dewey's sedge
Carex diandralesser panicled sedge, lesser tussock sedge
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Peatlands, shores, springs, swamps, sometimes in shallow water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex dispermashort-leaf sedge
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America; circumboreal.
Habitat: Moist riparian forests, swamps, peatlands, wet meadows, and springs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex divulsaLeers's sedge
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington in lowland areas; also known in Oregon, California and eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas at low elevation, where escaping from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. leersii – Leer's sedge
Carex douglasiiDouglas's sedge
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; central British Columbia to California, east to central North America.
Habitat: Dry to wet soils in sagebrush grasslands, riparian zones, and forest margins.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex eburneabristle-leaved sedge
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; Alaska to Washington and Montana, east across Canada to the Atlantic Coast, also east from the northern Great Plains in the U.S. to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Gravelly shores, swamps, moist banks, moist forest, limy outcrops and talus.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex echinatastar sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern North America; circumboreal.
Habitat: Swamps, bogs and other wet places, from the lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. echinata – star sedge
ssp. phyllomanica – coastal star sedge
Carex engelmanniiEngelmann's sedge
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic Mountains and in the Cascades Mountains south to Mt. Adams in Washington; southern British Columbia to Mt. Adams in Washington, east to Idaho, Montana, and Colorado.
Habitat: Dry or moist fellfields, rocky slopes, talus and scree, cliffs and meadows in the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex exsiccatabig inflated sedge
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Swales, wet meadows, shores, seasonal pools, and peatlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex fetagreen-sheath sedge
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Marshes and wet meadows from the lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex filifoliathread-leaved sedge
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Lowland to alpine, formerly common in dry meadows of Palouse and sagebrush.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. filifolia – thread-leaf sedge
Carex flavayellow sedge, yellow-green sedge
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washington, east across the northern U.S. and Canada to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Wet meadows, marshes, shores, peatlands, and wet thickets, often where limy.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex fractafragile-sheath sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Open forest, riparian zones, springs, moist or dry roadsides, and ditches, often in partial shade.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex geyerielk sedge, Geyer's sedge
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Grassy slopes, meadows, and forest openings from the sagebrush foothills to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex gynocratesyellow bog sedge
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in north-central Washington;
Habitat: Peatlands, moist forest, wet meadows, springs, swamps, mossy stream banks, talus, and often limy.
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex hallianaHall's sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in southern Washington; southern Washington to California.
Habitat: Dry meadows, pumice, and open forest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex hasseifalse golden sedge
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Wet or moist meadows, springs, peatlands, shores, and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex haydenianacloud sedge, Hayden's sedge
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, Montana, and Colorado.
Habitat: Subalpine and alpine ridges, rocky slopes, talus and scree, snowmelt areas and stream banks, often in wetter sites in our more eastern mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex hendersoniiHenderson's sedge
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California, disjunct in northern Idaho.
Habitat: Boggy areas and wet woods, low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex heteroneuradifferent-veined sedge, smooth-fruited sedge
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest along the Canadian border in Washington British Columbia to California, east to Sasketchewan and the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist to wet sites in the subalpine and alpine zones.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex hoodiiHood's sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Sasketchewan, South Dakota, and Colorado.
Habitat: Dry or mesic meadows, rocky slopes, scree, talus, open forest, sagebrush desert, and recent burns.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex hystericinaporcupine sedge
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Shores, swales, marshes, springs, and wet meadows;
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex illotasmall-head sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, Montana, and Colorado.
Habitat: Montane to alpine wet meadows, peatlands, marshes, shores, and springs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex infirminerviaweak-veined sedge
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, Montana, and Colorado.
Habitat: Springs, mesic slopes, shores, riparian forests, and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex inopslong-stolon sedge
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Forest openings, open slopes, and near streams in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. inops – long-stolon sedge
Carex integrasmooth-beaked sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in southern Washington; southern Washington to California.
Habitat: Dry to mesic montane meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex interiorinland sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet meadows, peatlands, swampy forests, and shores, often where limy.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex interruptagreen-fruited sedge, interrupted sedge
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to southwestern Oregon.
Habitat: Sand bars, riverbanks, occasionally wet meadows, and reservoir shores.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex jonesiiJones' sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; northern Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Wet meadows, shores, springs, stream banks, and peatlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex kelloggiiKellogg's sedge, lakeshore sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Shores, riparian zones, wet meadows, marshes, and peatlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. impressa – few-ribbed sedge, mountain shore sedge
var. kelloggii – Kellogg's sedge, lakeshore sedge
var. limnophila – coastal shore sedge
Carex kobomugiJapanese sedge
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in southwestern Washington; known historically from Portland, Oregon; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Coastal dunes.
Origin: Introduced from eastern Asia.
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex lacustrislake sedge
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; Alberta to Washington, east across the northern half of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wetland, swamps, and marshes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex laeviculmissmooth-stemmed sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Wet meadows, wet forest, springs, peatlands, shores, and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex lasiocarpawiregrass sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Utah, the Great Plains of Canada, and from the Great Lakes region to northeastern North America; circumboreal.
Habitat: Wetlands, riparian zones, and other wet areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex leporinahare sedge, oval broom sedge, oval sedge
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, and introduced in eastern North America.
Habitat: Seasonally wet prairies, swales, shores, marshes, ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex leporinellaSierra hare sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Utah.
Habitat: Seasonally moist montane to alpine to wet meadows, marshes, shores, snowmelt basins, and peatlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex leptaleadelicate sedge, jelly bean sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet areas, both open and forested, from lowlands to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex leptopodashort-scaled sedge, slenderfoot sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Lowland mesic or damp forest, riparian zones, swamps, partly shaded swales or springs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex limosamud sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Utah, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Peatlands, shores.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex lividapale sedge
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Montana, Colorado, and eastern North America; also in South America; circumpolar.
Habitat: Peatlands, stream banks, and wet open forests from lowlands to montane.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex longiiLong's sedge
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Ditches, cranberry fields, shores, and wet ledges.
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America.
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex luzulinaspring sedge, woodrush sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Peatlands, stream banks, springs, and shores.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex lyngbyeiLyngbye's sedge
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across Canada to Greenland and Europe.
Habitat: Coastal marshes and tidal flats.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex maclovianaFalkland Islands sedge
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; Alaska to Washington, east to Alberta, Montana, and Colorado; circumboreal, also in South America.
Habitat: Mountain lake and river shores, moist meadows and slopes, bogs, and other wet areas, including disturbed areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex macrocephalabighead sedge
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the coast in Washington; Alaska to Oregon; northern Pacific Rim.
Habitat: Sandy saltwater beaches and dunes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex macrochaetalong-awn sedge
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon.
Habitat: Wet cliffs and openings, near beaches, stream banks, scree, and heaths.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex magellanicaboreal bog sedge, poor sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; Alaska to Washington, east to Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Colorado, also to the Great Lakes region and eastern North America; circumboreal; also in South America.
Habitat: Peatlands, swamps, wet meadows, and lakeshores.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. irrigua – poor sedge
Carex mediaMontana sedge, Scandinavian sedge
Distribution: Occurring east of the Casades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon and Montana, east across Canada to the Great Lakes region and northeastern North America; circumboreal.
Habitat: Wet meadows, shores, springs, wet cliffs, peatlands, and swamps.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex mertensiiMertens' sedge
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta and western Montana.
Habitat: Wet, open or shaded areas from the lowlands to near timberline
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex micropodatimberline sedge
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades Range and Olympic Mountains in Washington; Alaska to northeastern Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Subalpine and alpine dry or moist, rocky meadows and slopes, ledges, talus, and scree.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex micropterasmall-winged sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to Mexico, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist to dry meadows and streambanks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex nardinaspikenard sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon and Nevada, east to the Rocky Mountains, and east across northern Canada to eastern North America; circumpolar.
Habitat: Alpine rocky outcroppings, slopes, and ridges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex nebrascensisNebraska sedge
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Wet meadows and other wet areas, often in alkaline areas, lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex neurophoraalpine nerve sedge
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades Range and Olympic Mountains in Washington; Washington to California, east to Montana and Colorado.
Habitat: Alpine wet meadows, springs, stream banks, peatlands
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex nigricansblack alpine sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Alpine and subalpine moist meadows, snowmelt channels, depressions, talus, and shores.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex nudatatorrent sedge
Distribution: Occurring along the Cascades crest in south-central Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Below high water mark on cobble and ledges in rocky streambeds, occasional in irrigation canals.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex obnuptaslough sedge
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; northern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Sloughs, shores, wet meadows, riparian forest and ditches, in either sun or shade.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex obtusatablunt sedge
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in the Olympic Mountains in Washington; Alaska to Washington, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Subalpine and alpine dry or moist meadows, fellfields, and scree.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex pachycarpafurrowed broomsedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Dry to mesic meadows, open forest, and rocky slopes, often in partial shade.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex pachystachyastarry sedge, thick-headed sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Saskatoon and Colorado.
Habitat: Wet meadows, springs, shores, peatlands, marsh margins, and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex pallescenspale green sedge
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to southwestern Washington, east to northern Idaho and western Montana.
Habitat: Wet meadows, ditches, pastures, and stream banks.
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America and Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex pansasand sedge
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington along coastal areas; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Dunes, meadows, and other open areas along the coast.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex parryanaParry's sedge
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in north-central Washington; Alaska to Washington, east to Manitoba, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Alkaline shores, mudflats, alluvium, and wet meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex pauciflorafew-flowered sedge
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washington, east across Canada to northeastern North America; circumpolar.
Habitat: Sphagnum bogs and acidic peatlands, generally at low to moderate elevations in our area.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex pellitawoolly sedge
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet to dry meadows from low elevations to montane.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex pendulapendulous sedge
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Forest edge and openings, riparian zones, and other moist areas at low elevations, often where disturbed.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex petasataLiddon's sedge
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Northwest Territory, Saskatoon, and the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Dry to moist slopes and meadows, riparian areas, open forest, often among sagebrush.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex phaeocephalamountain hare sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Montana, and Colorado.
Habitat: Subalpine and alpine talus, rocky slopes, and dry meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex pluriflorablack bog sedge
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to northwestern Washington.
Habitat: Peatlands, wet meadows, and shores.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex praeceptorumteacher's sedge
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado.
Habitat: Wet meadows, springs, shores, and peatlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex praegracilisclustered field sedge
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains; also introduced from Wisconsin to Missouri, east to the Atlantic.
Habitat: Wet to seasonally moist meadows, shores, springs, vernal pools, ditches, and dredgings, tolerant of alkali or road salt.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex praticolanorthern meadow sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the northern Great Plains, then scattered further east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Seasonally damp to mesic meadows, open forest, riparian areas, springs, and disturbed ground at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex presliiPresl's sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Open, dry to seasonally dry areas from montane to alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex propositaSmoky Mountain sedge
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; also in Idaho and California.
Habitat: Alpine dry, rocky slopes and ridges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June- August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex raynoldsiiRaynolds' sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Subalpine and alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex retrorsaretrorse sedge
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Marshes, shores, swamps, floodplains, wet meadows, and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex rossiiRoss' sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Open forest, meadows, burns, ledges, from lowland to alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex rostratanorthern beaked sedge
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; Alaska to northern Washington, east to Montana, the Great Lakes region, and Newfoundland.
Habitat: Sphagnum bogs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex saxatilislimestone sedge, russet sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washington, east across the northern U.S. and Canada to northeastern North America; circumboreal.
Habitat: Peatlands, shores, streams, and wet meadows, sometimes in shallow water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex scirpoideasingle-spike sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Meadows, peatlands, wet cliffs, shores, high montane snowmelt meadows, fellfields, dry ridges, and shores, sometimes where limy, lowland to alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. pseudoscirpoidea – western single-spiked sedge
ssp. scirpoidea – northern single-spike sedge
ssp. stenochlaena – Alaska singlespike sedge
Carex scopariapointed broomsedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, most of the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, and central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Marshes, wet meadows, seasonal wetlands, shores, wet prairie, springs, and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex scopulorummountain sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Montana and subalpine wet meadows, marshes, shores, stream banks, and peatlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. bracteosa – Sierra alpine sedge
var. prionophyllum – firethread sedge
Carex sheldoniiSheldon's sedge
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southeastern Washington; southeastern Washington to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Swales, slow creeks, wet meadows, and openings in riparian forest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex siccatadry-spike sedge
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory and Northwest Territory to Washington, also in the southern Rocky Mountains, east across Canada to the Great Lakes region, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Dry grassland, savanna, and open forest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex simulataanalogue sedge
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central and southern Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Wet meadows, shores, marshes, peatlands, and springs, often where limy or alkaline.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex spectabilisshowy sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Montana, Wyoming, and Utah.
Habitat: Damp meadows and other wet places, from middle to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex stenoptilariverbank sedge
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in north-central Washington; Washington to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Moist to dry rocky slopes and meadows, open forest, stream banks, and subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex stipataawl-fruited sedge, sawbeak sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet ground, lowlands (especially west of the Cascades) to mid-elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. stipata – awl-fruited sedge, sawbeak sedge
Carex straminiformisMt. Shasta sedge
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades of southern Washington; southern Washington to California, east to Idaho and Utah.
Habitat: Montane gravel, sand, ash, or pumice meadows, talus, and dry open forest, often near or above timberline.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex stylosalong-style sedge
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washington, also in eastern Canada and Greenland.
Habitat: Peatlands, marshes, moist or wet meadows, shores.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex subbracteatasmall-bracted sedge
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; introduced from southwestern British Columbia to Lincoln County, Oregon; native from Coos County Oregon to California.
Habitat: Seasonally wet meadows and ditches.
Origin: Introduced from southern Oregon
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex subfuscarusty sedge
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho, Utah, and New Mexico.
Habitat: Wet meadows, riparian zones, shores, and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex sychnocephalamany-headed sedge
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across the northern U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast; disjunct in Colorado.
Habitat: Moist or wet meadows, seasonal wetlands, receding shores, and sandy sloughs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex sylvaticaEuropean woodland sedge
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to western Washington.
Habitat: Mesic or moist forest, paths, disturbed meadows, and ditches.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex tahoensisLake Tahoe sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east to Alberta, Montana, and Colorado.
Habitat: Generally subalpine and alpine rocky slopes, ridges, talus and scree, and dry meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex teneraquill sedge, slender sedge
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to northeastern Washington, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Riparian zones, wet meadows, marshy shores, damp thickets, and swamps.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex tenuiflorasparse-flower sedge
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; Alaska to northern Washington, east across the northern U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast; circumboreal.
Habitat: Peatlands and wet meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex tribuloidestribulation sedge
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; southwestern British Columbia to western Oregon; native to central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Ditches, marshes, wet meadows, wet thickets, receding shorelines, and freshwater intertidal shores.
Origin: Introduced from central and eastern North America
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. tribuloides – blunt broom sedge
Carex tumulicolafoothill sedge
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Mesic to seasonally wet meadows, open for, sea bluffs, grassy slopes, and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex unilateralisone-sided sedge
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Wet prairie remnants, and swales.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex utriculatabeaked sedge, inflated sedge, Northwest Territory sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Shores, often in shallow water, swamps, marshes, peatlands, and wet meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex vallicolavalley sedge
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Dry to mesic grassy slopes, open forest, riparian zones, sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex vernaculafoetid sedge
Habitat: Moist to wet slopes, snowmelt basins, springs, and shores in the subalpine to alpine
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex vesicariainflated sedge, oxbow sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Swales, wet meadows, shores, seasonal pools, and peatlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex viridulagreen sedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Shores, marshes, peatlands, dunes, hollows, hot springs, often where limy, or saline soils.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. viridula – greenish sedge, little green sedge
Carex vulpinoideafox sedge
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southern British Columbia to Oregon, east to the Atlantic Coast; introduced in California and Nevada.
Habitat: Marshes and standing water at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Carex zikaeshort-stemmed sedge, Zika's sedge
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Strictly coastal in dunes and headlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cascadia nuttalliiNuttall's saxifrage
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest on the Olympic Peninsula and south in Washington; Washington south along the coast to southwestern Oregon.
Habitat: Wet banks and near waterfalls, usually growing in moss, from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cassiope lycopodioidesclubmoss mountain-heather
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washington.
Habitat: Alpine rocky slopes and rock crevices.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cassiope mertensianaMertens's moss-heather
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana, Idaho, and Nevada.
Habitat: Open, rocky areas from the subalpine to alpine, often where dry in summer.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. mertensiana – Mertens' mountain heather, western moss heather
Cassiope tetragonafour-angled moss-heather
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the crest in the North Cascades Mountains of Washington; Alaska to Washington, also in Montana
Habitat: Open, rocky areas in the subalpine and alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. saximontana – four-angled mountain heather, white arctic mountain heather
Castanea sativaEuropean chestnut, Spanish chestnut, sweet chestnut
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; also occurring in scattered states in eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed forest, thickets, and forest openings at low elevations, where escaping from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Castilleja ambiguapaintbrush owl-clover
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the coast in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Margins of coastal salt marshes and brackish areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
var. ambigua – salt-marsh paintbrush
Castilleja attenuataattenuate paintbrush, valley-tassels
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California and Arizona.
Habitat: Drier areas at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Castilleja cervinadeer paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; British Columbia to Washington, east to northern Idaho, and possibly western Montana.
Habitat: Grasslands and woodlands at moderate to mid-elevations
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Castilleja chambersiiChambers's Indian paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington in Pacific County; southwestern Washington to northwestern Washington.
Habitat: Forest openings, embankments, and rock outcroppings typically where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Castilleja cryptanthaobscure paintbrush
Distribution: Endemic to Mt. Rainier National Park and immediate vicinity in Washington.
Habitat: Moist subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Castilleja cusickiiCusick's paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Nevada, east to Alberta, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Open areas, lower valleys to subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Castilleja elmeriElmer's paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington from the Wenatchee Mountains and northward; south-central British Columbia to Kittitas County in Washington.
Habitat: Moist, open slopes at middle elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Castilleja hispidaharsh paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to southwestern Alberta and Montana.
Habitat: Grassy slopes and forest openings, from sea level to moderate elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. acuta – acute paintbrush, harsh paintbrush
var. hispida – harsh paintbrush
Castilleja levisectagolden paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washngton; Vancouver Island to the Willamette Valley of Oregon.
Habitat: Meadows and prairies at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Castilleja litoraliscoast paintbrush, Pacific paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in southwestern Washington; southwestern Washington to California.
Habitat: Seaside bluffs, coastal scrub, dune swales, possibly parasitic on Gaultheria shallon.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Castilleja lutescensyellow paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in eastern Washington; eastern Washington to northeastern Oregon, east to northwestern Montana.
Habitat: Low, dry grasslands and woodlands, occasionally to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Castilleja miniatacommon paintbrush, scarlet paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Mountain meadows and slopes; also on coastal bluffs; widespread and common.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. dixonii – Dixon's paintbrush
var. miniata – scarlet paintbrush
Castilleja minorannual paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; south-central British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Alkaline marshes and meadows, mostly at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
var. exilis – seep paintbrush
Castilleja parviflorasmall-flowered paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta.
Habitat: Subalpine meadows and forest openings at high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. albida – mountain Indian paintbrush
var. olympica – Olympic paintbrush
var. oreopola – magenta paintbrush
Castilleja rupicolacliff paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to Oregon.
Habitat: Rock crevices and rocky slopes, usually above timberline.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Castilleja suksdorfiiSuksdorf's paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest from mainly from Mt. Adams south; In Washington chiefly in the Cascades from Mt. Adams south, occasionally north to Whatcom County; Washington to Crater Lake, Oregon.
Habitat: Subalpine meadows and forests along streams and wet areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Castilleja tenuisthin paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Nevada..
Habitat: Vernally moist meadows and other moist sites, from the lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Castilleja thompsoniiThompson's paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon.
Habitat: Dry sagebrush deserts to high mountain ridges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Castilleja victoriaeVictoria's paintbrush
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington in San Juan County; Victoria, British Columbia area to the San Juan Islands.
Habitat: Seasonally moist balds.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Catalpa bignonioidessouthern catalpa
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California and scattered in other western U.S. states; native from Great Plains to Atlantic Cost.
Habitat: Disturbed habitats and abandoned homesteads.
Origin: Introduced from central and eastern North America
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Catalpa speciosanorthern catalpa
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Washington, east to Idaho; native from southern Rocky Mountains east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed areas and abandoned homesteads.
Origin: Introduced from central and eastern North America
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Caulanthus lasiophylluswild cabbage, California mustard
Distribution: Reported from Washington; Washington to Baja California, Mexico, east to Utah, Arizona, and New Mexico.
Habitat: Sandy banks, gravelly or rocky areas, often where disturbed.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Ceanothus cuneatuscommon buckbrush, narrow-leaf buckthorn, sedge-leaf buckthorn
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Klickitat County; south-central Washington to California.
Habitat: Foothills, in dry areas.
Origin: Possibly native in Klickitat County, but definitely intentionally planted in Chelan and Ferry counties
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. cuneatus – common buckbrush, sedge-leaf buckthorn
Ceanothus integerrimusdeerbrush
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in south-central Washington; south-central Washington to California.
Habitat: Dry, open forests and open areas at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Ceanothus prostratusprostrate ceanothus, Mahala mat
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in south-central Washington; south-central Washington to California, east to Idaho and western Nevada.
Habitat: Drier open woods, moderate to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Ceanothus sanguineusredstem ceanothus, Oregon teatree
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to western Montana.
Habitat: Moist to dry open forest, slopes, and thickets, from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Ceanothus velutinusmountain balm, greasewood, sticky-laurel, tobacco-brush
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, South Dakota, Wyoming, and Colorado.
Habitat: Moist to dry open forests, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. laevigatus – mountain balm, greasewood, sticky-laurel
var. velutinus – mountain balm, greasewood
Celtis reticulatanetleaf hackberry
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east through Southern Rockies to Kansas, Oklahoma and Texas.
Habitat: Open slopes and rocky bluffs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cenchrus longispinuslongspine sandbur, mat sandbur
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Mexico, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Sandy river banks and other disturbed, seasonally moist areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Centaurea benedictablessed thistle
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Centaurea calcitrapapurple starthistle, red starthistle
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to New Mexico, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Centaurea cyanusbachelor's button, garden cornflower
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, meadows, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from the Mediterranean region
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Centaurea diffusadiffuse knapweed, tumble knapweed, white knapweed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east across much of the U.S. and Canada to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, meadows, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas; noxious.
Origin: Introduced from the eastern Mediterranean region
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Centaurea ×gerstlauerihybrid knapweed, meadow knapweed, protean knapweed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Montana; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, meadows, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Centaurea ibericaIberian knapweed, Iberian starthistle
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, also in Wyoming and Kansas.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, dry meadows, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Centaurea jaceabrown knapweed, brownray knapweed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, also from the Great Lakes region east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, meadows, shores, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Centaurea macrocephalaglobe knapweed
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to Montana, also in Colorado, and Great Lakes region to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides and meadows.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Centaurea melitensisMaltese starthistle, tocalote
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to California and Mexico, east to Texas and eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, meadows, balds, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from the Mediterranean region
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Centaurea montanamountain bluet, mountain cornflower, montane starthistle
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Montana, Idaho, and Utah, also from Great Lakes region to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, shores, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Centaurea nigrablack knapweed, lesser knapweed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, also Great Lakes region east to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, meadows, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Centaurea nigrescensshort fringed knapweed, Tyrol knapweed
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Wyoming, also from Great Lakes region east to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Centaurea solstitialisyellow star-thistle
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, meadows, grassy slopes, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Centaurea stoebespotted knapweed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Forest openings, meadows, fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. australis – spotted knapweed
Centaurea trichocephalafeatherhead knapweed
Origin: Introduced
Growth Duration: Perennial
Centaurea ×varnensishybrid diffuse knapweed, sand knapweed
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Idaho; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Centaurium erythraeacommon centaury, European centaury
Distribution: Chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California east to Montana; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Wet meadows, prairies, grasslands, roadsides, and wasteland.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Centaurium pulchellumbranching centaury, lesser centaury
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where known historically; Washington, waif in California, and more common in eastern North America.
Habitat: Meadows, wastelots, and other disturbed areas, generally where moist.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Centranthus ruberJupiter's-beard
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, also in Utah and Arizona.
Habitat: Disturbed areas at low elevations, where escaping from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Centromadia pungenscommon spikeweed
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central and south-central Washington; central Washington to California, where native east to Idaho, Nevada, and Arizona.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open places at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from California
Flowers: July-Sept.
Growth Duration: Annual
ssp. pungens – common spikeweed, western spikeweed
Cephalanthera austiniaephantom orchid
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest and in the Blue Mountains in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Generally deep coniferous woods where somewhat moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cerastium arvensestarry cerastium, field chickweed, field mouse-ear chickweed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America, except for the south-central and southeastern U.S., to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open slopes and meadows, from coastal cliffs and balds to inland valleys, rocky hillsides, forest openings, and subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. strictum – field chickweed
Cerastium beeringianumalpine chickweed
Distribution: Occurring in the North Cascade Mountains in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains in the U.S.; east across Canada to the Atlantic coast.
Habitat: Alpine zone, mostly in cirques or on talus.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cerastium brachypetalumgray mouse-ear chickweed
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southeastern Washington and in the Columbia River Gorge; southern Washington to western Oregon; also occurring in eastern North America.
Habitat: Dry, disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Cerastium brachypodumshort-stalk mouse-ear chickweed
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central Washington, where disjunct; southeastern Oregon to southern Idaho and southwestern Montana; disjunct in central Washington.
Habitat: Grassy or disturbed areas, often where seasonally wet.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cerastium dichotomumforked mouse-ear chickweed
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations east of the Cascades crest in the Columbia River Gorge and in southeastern Washington; Washington to California, east to western Idaho.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, especially along roadsides.
Origin: Introduced from southern Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Cerastium fontanumcommon mouse-ear chickweed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed ground, lawns and gardens
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-September
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
ssp. vulgare – common chickweed, mouse-ear chickweed
Cerastium glomeratumsticky mouse-ear chickweed
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, but more common west of the crest; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Prairies, balds, fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Cerastium nutansnodding mouse-ear chickweed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east across North America except for California, Nevada, and Utah.
Habitat: Dry to moist shorelines, streambanks, fields, and other disturbed, open areas..
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
var. nutans – nodding chickweed
Cerastium pumilumdwarf mouse-ear chickweed
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, and from the Great Plains east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Dry, sandy or gravelly balds, fields, prairies, roadsides, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Cerastium semidecandrumfive-stamen mouse-ear chikweed
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southern British Columbia to Oregon, east to Idaho, also from the Great Plains east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Prairies, forest edge, fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Cerastium tomentosumsnow-in-summer
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington British Columbia to Oregon, east to Montana, Wyoming, Nebraska, the Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, and wastelots at low elevation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Ceratocephala testiculatahornseed buttercup
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Disturbed soil in sagebrush deserts and plains.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Ceratophyllum demersumcoon's-tail
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Standing to slow-moving water, from the lowlands to mid-elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Ceratophyllum echinatumspineless hornwort
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California; also from central North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: In standing to slow-moving water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cercocarpus ledifoliusmountain mahogany
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southeastern Washington (population in Chelan County was planted); southeastern Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Dry areas, from foothills to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. intermontanus – birchleaf mountain-mahogany
var. ledifolius – mountain mahogany
Chaenactis douglasiihoary chaenactis, hoary false-yarrow
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert flats and slopes, ponderosa pine forest openings, and meadows near the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
var. douglasii – dustymaidens, hoary false yarrow
Chaenactis thompsoniiThompson's pincushion
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where endemic to the Wenatchee Mountains.
Habitat: Open, usually rocky areas, at middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Chaenorhinum minusdwarf-snapdragon
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon; east across much of North America to tha Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadside, disturbed open areas, waste ground.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Chaerophyllum temulumrough chervil
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in the lowlands in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to northwestern Oregon, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Forest edge and understory, shady roadsides, and other disturbed areas where shady and seasonally moist.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Biennial
Chamaenerion angustifoliumfireweed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast; circumboreal.
Habitat: Open areas, sea level to subalpine, especially in burned and other naturally disturbed areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Chamaenerion latifoliumalpine fireweed, broad-leaf fireweed
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic Mountains and on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern Canada; circumboreal.
Habitat: Subalpine to alpine river bars, gravelly stream banks, snowmelt areas, and seasonally drier slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Chelidonium majusdevil's milk, swallow wort
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to Oregon, east to Montana; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Moist to dry woods, roadsides, fields, waste areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Biennial
Chenopodiastrum muralenettleleaf goosefoot, wall goosefoot, sowbane
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the southern Rocky Mountains; central North America east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Chenopodiastrum simplexgiant goosefoot, maple leaf goosefoot
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Nevada, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, forest edge, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Chenopodium albumlambsquarters, pigweed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, forest edge, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe, but some populations in the Midwest may be native to North America, according to FNA
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Chenopodium atrovirenspinyon goosefoot
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert and open, often moist, sometimes disturbed sites at middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Chenopodium berlandieriBerlandieri's goosefoot
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, riparian zones, wastelots, and other open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: August-October
Growth Duration: Annual
var. zschackei – pitseed goosefoot
Chenopodium fremontiiFremont's goosefoot
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert to low montane forest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Chenopodium leptophyllumnarrowleaf goosefoot
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Baja California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert and dry grasslands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Chenopodium pratericoladesert goosefoot, narrowleaf goosefoot
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east to the Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern U.S.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert and grasslands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Chenopodium strictumwhite goosefoot
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast..
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Chenopodium subglabrumsmooth goosefoot
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; scattered in western North America and the Great Plains.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert and grasslands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Cherleria bifloratwo-flowered sandwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, and in Rocky Mountains to Colorado and Arizona; circumboreal
Habitat: Moist subalpine to alpine slopes, often near snowbanks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cherleria obtusilobaalpine sandwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to central Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains as far south as New Mexico.
Habitat: Dry, subalpine to alpine slopes and tundra.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Chimaphila menziesiilittle pipsissewa, little prince's-pine
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Utah.
Habitat: Coniferous forests from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Chimaphila umbellatacommon Pipsissewa, prince's-pine
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Wooded areas, mostly coniferous forest, low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. umbellata – Pipsissewa, common prince's-pine
Chondrilla junceahogbite, rush skeletonweed, gum succory
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana; also occurring in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, sagebrush desert, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Chorispora tenellacrossflower, blue mustard
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to eastern North America.
Habitat: Shrub-steppe habitat, both degraded and intact; disturbed areas, roadsides, and pastures.
Origin: Introduced from sw Asia
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Chorizanthe watsoniifive-tooth spineflower, Watson's spineflower
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central Washington; Washington to California, east to Montana, Utah, or Arizona.
Habitat: Sandy to gravelly flats and slopes, mixed grassland, saltbush and sagebrush communities, often where disturbed.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Chrysolepis chrysophyllagiant chinquapin, golden chinquapin
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Mason County, Washington to California.
Habitat: Dry, open to wooded areas, from sea level to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. chrysophylla – giant chinquapin, golden chinquapin
Chrysosplenium glechomifoliumPacific golden-saxifrage, Pacific watercarpet
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to northwest California.
Habitat: Moist, usually swampy places, mostly at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Chrysosplenium tetrandrumnorthern golden-saxifrage
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in north-central Washington Alaska to Washington, east to Montana and Colorado in the U.S., east across Canada to the Atlantic Coast; circumpolar.
Habitat: Rock crevices and wet banks and slopes, high elevations in our area.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Chrysothamnus viscidiflorusgreen rabbit-brush
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert to ponderosa pine forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. lanceolatus – sticky-leaf rabbitbrush, yellow rabbitbrush
ssp. viscidiflorus – sticky flowered rabbitbrush, sticky-leaf rabbitbrush, yellow rabbitbrush
Chylismia scapoideanaked-stemmed beeblossom
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central Washington, where disjunct from the main range of the species; central Oregon to Nevada, east to Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, and New Mexico, disjunct in central Washington.
Habitat: Dry slopes and flats in sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
ssp. brachycarpa – short-fruited beeblossom
Cicer arietinumchick-pea
Distribution: Sparingly introduced in eastern Washington; scattered localities in other parts of western North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas on the edge of or near agricultural fields.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Cichorium intybuschicory, wild succory
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Cicuta bulbiferabulblet-bearing water-hemlock, bulbous water-hemlock
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to southern Oregon, east to Newfoundland and Virginia,
Habitat: Marshes, bogs, wet meadows and standing water, lowlands to mountain valleys.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cicuta douglasiiDouglas' water-hemlock, western water-hemlock
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Alberta, Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Marshes, ditches, and wet low places, from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cicuta maculataspotted water-hemlock
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Marshes, ditches, and shorelines, from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
var. angustifolia – spotted water-hemlock
Cinna latifoliaslender wood-reed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Moist woods and meadows, sea level to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Circaea alpinaenchanter's nightshade
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Cool, damp woods, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. alpina – dwarf enchanter's nightshade
ssp. pacifica – Pacific enchanter's nightshade
Cirsium arvenseCanadian thistle, creepiing thistle
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, meadows, pastures, prairies, grasslands, wastelots, and other disturbed areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cirsium brevifoliumPalouse thistle
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in eastern and southeastern Washington; eastern Washington to northeast Oregon and adjacent Idaho.
Habitat: Palouse grassland remnants, dry rocky slopes, and roadsides.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cirsium brevistylumclustered thistle, short-styled thistle
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to northern California, east to Montana.
Habitat: Slopes, open forest, and moist meadows from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Cirsium eduleedible thistle
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon.
Habitat: Forest openings and edge, meadows, roadsides, and other open areas at low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
var. edule – edible thistle, Indian thistle, Macoun's thistle
var. wenatchense – Wenatchee thistle
Cirsium flodmaniiFlodman's thistle
Distribution: British Columbia to north-central Washington,south in the Rocky Mountains from Alberta, east to the Great Plains and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Grasslands, stream banks, and roadsides at low to middle elevations.
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cirsium hookerianumHooker's thistle, white thistle
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Washington, east to Alberta, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Moist lowlands, open slopes and fields.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cirsium inamoenumGreene's thistle
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southeastern Washington; southeastern Washington to California, east to Idaho, Wyoming, and Utah.
Habitat: Grassland, sagebrush desert, and dry rocky slopes from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
var. inamoenum – Greene's thistle
Cirsium remotifoliumfew-leaf thistle, Pacific fringed thistle, remote-leaved thistle, weak thistle
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Meadows, stream banks, open for, brushy slopes, from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Cirsium scariosumelk thistle, meadow thistle
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Wet meadows, moist, sometimes alkaline ground, and forest openings from the foothills to fairly high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Cirsium undulatumwavy leaf thistle
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Michigan and Texas.
Habitat: Dry hillsides and plains at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Cirsium vulgarebull thistle, common thistle
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, forest edge, ditches, balds, prairies, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Biennial
Clarkia amoenayellow clarkia, arewell-to-spring, farewell-to-spring
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Dry, open to wooded areas, at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Clarkia gracilisslender godetia
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Fairly dry, open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual
ssp. gracilis – slender godetia
Clarkia pulchelladeer horn, pinkfairies, ragged robin
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to South Dakota.
Habitat: Dry, open slopes, low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Clarkia quadrivulnerafour-spot
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest and along the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Grasslands and meadows at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Clarkia rhomboideacommon clarkia, diamond fairyfan
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southeastern British Columbia to California and Arizona, east to Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Nevada.
Habitat: Dry, often sandy soil in forest openings at low to moderate elevtions.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Clarkia vimineatwiggy clarkia
Distribution: Known historically (1893) from west of the Cascades crest in Clark County of southwestern Washington; southwestern Washington to California.
Habitat: Grassy or rocky slopes and flats.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Annual
Claytonia arenicolasand claytonia, sand springbeauty
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest along the eastern border of Washington and in the Columbia River Gorge; Washington to Oregon, east to Idaho and western Montana.
Habitat: Mossy and rocky places, from sagebrush desert to ponderosa pine forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Claytonia cordifoliabroadleaf springbeauty, heart-leaf springbeauty
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Utah.
Habitat: On wet soil, usually along streams, moderate to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Claytonia exiguapale claytonia
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to northwestern Nevada.
Habitat: Open areas on rock, clayey soils, or sand.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Annual
ssp. exigua – Claytonia, pale springbeauty Claytonia
ssp. glauca – pallid Claytonia
Claytonia lanceolatalanceleaf springbeauty
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Sasketchewan.
Habitat: Sagebrush foothills to alpine slopes, usually where vernally moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Claytonia megarhizaalpine springbeauty
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the Wenatchee Mountains of Washington; in scattered locations from Northwest Territories to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Gravelly soil and talus slopes, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Claytonia multiscapaRydberg's springbeauty
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; in scattered locations from British Columbia south to Washington; east to Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Rocky subalpine to alpine slopes and outcroppings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. pacifica – Pacific lanceleaf springbeauty
Claytonia parviflorasmall-flowered miner's lettuce, small-flowered springbeauty
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Open rocky areas, open forest, forest edge, and disturbed areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Claytonia perfoliataminer's-lettuce
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Forest openings and margins, shaded rock crevices, and open areas where seasonally moist from the coast to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Claytonia rubracushion miner's lettuce, red miners lettuce
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Open areas from sea level to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Claytonia sibiricacandyflower, Siberian springbeauty, western springbeauty
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana and northeastern Oregon and southeastern Idaho.
Habitat: Moist, usually shady places, lowlands to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Claytonia umbellataGreat Basin springbeauty
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the Wenatchee Mountains in Washington, where disjunct from the main range of the species; Wasco and Wallowa counties, Oregon to California and western Nevada, disjunct in the Wenatchee Mountains of Washington.
Habitat: Montane to subalpine talus and scree.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Claytonia washingtonianaLake Washington claytonia, Lake Washington miner's lettuce, Lake Washington springbeauty
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon.
Habitat: Coastal bluffs and coniferous forests at low elevations, typically where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: January-June
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Clematis hirsutissimaDouglas's clematis, leatherflower, sugarbowls, vaseflower
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in eastern Washington; Washington to Oregon, east to Montana, south to Arizona and New Mexico.
Habitat: Meadows, grasslands, and forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. hirsutissima – Douglas' clematis
Clematis ligusticifoliawestern clematis
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Oklahoma and the Dakotas.
Habitat: River valleys and sagebrush desert to ponderosa pine forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Clematis occidentalisColumbia clematis, rock clematis, Columbia virgin's bower
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Saskatchewan and Wyoming.
Habitat: Often in deep, fine soils in shady forest, also in cliffs and other rocky sites in open woods and thickets, at moderate to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. dissecta – Columbia clematis
var. grosseserrata – Columbia clematis
Clematis orientalisOriental clematis, Oriental virgin's bower
Distribution: Known from Yakima County in Washington; also known from the Columbia River Gorge area in Oregon, and other scattered locations in southwestern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Clematis vitalbaevergreen clematis, old-man's beard, traveler's-joy
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, also in scattered locations in eastern North America.
Habitat: Forest edge, hillsides, parks, wastelots, and other disturbed sites.
Origin: Introduced; native to Europe and Africa
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Clinopodium douglasiiOregon-tea, yerba buena
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana.
Habitat: Coniferous woods, from sea level to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Clinopodium vulgarewild basil
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east across North America in scattered states and provinces.
Habitat: Roadsides, grassy areas, forest edges, and other disturbed areas at low elevation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Clintonia uniflorabride's-bonnet, queen's cup
Distribution: Occurring in forested and mountainous areas throughout Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Moist coniferous forests, from the foothills to fairly high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cochlearia groenlandicascurvy-grass, Danish scurvygrass, spoonwort
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest on the outer coast and along the Salish Sea in Washington; Alaska to California, east across northern Canada to the Atlantic Coast and Greenland.
Habitat: Along immediate coast in tidal flats, maritime rocky beaches, dunes, lagoons, stream banks, and peat hammocks,
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Colchicum autumnaleautumn crocus
Distribution: Known from Pierce County in Washington; not reported for elsewhere in North America.
Habitat: Lowland grassy meadows, escaping or persisting from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Coleanthus subtilismoss grass
Distribution: Occurring in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southern British Columbia, Columbia River Gorge, and Lower Columbia River, also in southwestern Oregon.
Habitat: Lake margins and sand bars.
Origin: Native?
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Collinsia grandiflorablue-lips blue-eyed Mary, large-flowered blue-eyed Mary
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Open, moist to rather dry areas, low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Collinsia parviflorasmall-flowered blue-eyed Mary, collinsia
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California and Colorado, east to Ontario and Michigan.
Habitat: Lowlands to alpine meadows in vernally (springtime) moist areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Collinsia rattaniiRattan collinsia
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington along the Columbia River Gorge; south-central Washington to the John Day valley in Oregon.
Habitat: Open woods at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Collinsia sparsiflorafew-flowered blue-eyed Mary, few-flowered collinsia
Distribution: Occurring in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; south-central Washington to adjacent northern Oregon, east to western Idaho.
Habitat: Open slopes, swales, forest edge, and balds.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-April
Growth Duration: Annual
var. sparsiflora – few-flowered blue-eyed Mary
Collomia debilisalpine collomia
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Oregon and Nevada, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Utah.
Habitat: Shifting talus slopes at high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. debilis – alpine collomia
Collomia grandifloralarge-flowered collomia, large-flower mountain-trumpet
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado.
Habitat: Dry, open to lightly wooded areas, lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Collomia heterophyllavaried-leaf collomia, variable-leaf mountain-trumpet
Distribution: Occurring mostly west of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Woods, forest openings and stream banks, low to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Collomia larseniiLarsen's alpine collomia, talus collomia
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic and Cascade Mountains in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Rocky, often moist slopes at high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Collomia linearisnarrow-leaf collomia, narrow-leaf mountain-trumpet
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Ontario and New Mexico.
Habitat: Dry to somewhat moist, open or lightly shaded areas in the lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Collomia macrocalyxbristle-flowered collomia, bristle-flower mountain-trumpet
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Kittitas and Yakima counties in Washington; central Washington and also in north-central Oregon.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Collomia tenelladiffuse collomia, diffuse mountain-trumpet
Distribution: Occurring mostly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Nevada, east to Idaho, Utah and Wyoming.
Habitat: Dry, open places from the plains to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Collomia tinctoriayellow-staining collomia, yellow-staining mountain-trumpet
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to central Idaho and southeast Oregon.
Habitat: Dry, open places in the foothills to moderate or mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Columbiadoria halliiColumbia River daisy, Hall's goldenweed
Distribution: Occurring in the east end of the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington to Oregon.
Habitat: Dry, open or sparsely wooded slopes at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: August-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Colutea arborescensbladder senna
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east across the southwest to the Great Plains; northeastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed open areas ncluding wastelots, roadsides, and fields.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Comandra umbellatabastard toadflax
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Dry to moist-but-sandy soil, sea level to subalpine; common in the shrub-steppe.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. californica – bastard toad flax
ssp. pallida – bastard toad flax
Comarum palustremarsh cinquefoil, purple marshlocks
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across the northern portion of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Bogs, wet meadows and lake margins, sea level to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Comastoma tenellumLapland gentian, Samiland gentian, slender gentian
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Okanogan County in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the northern Rocky Mountains; circumboreal.
Habitat: Alpine areas, typically where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Conioselinum pacificumPacific hemlock-parsley
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the marine coast in Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Bluffs and rocky or sandy beaches along the seashore.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Conium maculatumpoison hemlock
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas, often where soil is moist.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Biennial
Conringia orientalishare's-ear mustard, treacle mustard
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, waste places, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Convolvulus arvensisfield bindweed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, open areas, wastelots, and other disturbed sites.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Conyza bonariensisSouth American conyza
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; Washington to California, eastward in the southern U.S. to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and disturbed open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from South America
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Conyza canadensisCanadian fleabane, horseweed
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, balds, prairies, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Coptis aspleniifoliafern-leaf goldthread
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south along the coast to Washington.
Habitat: Moist woods and bogs at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Coptis laciniataOregon goldthread
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest from the Olympic Peninsula south in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Moist woods at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Coptis occidentalisIdaho goldthread, western goldthread
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the northeastern region of Washington; adjacent British Columbia to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Moist woods.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Coptis trifoliathreeleaf goldthread
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington in the northwest corner of the Olympic Peninsula. Alaska to Washington, Idaho and Montana, east across northern North America to the Atlantic; disjunct in Clackamas County, Oregon; also in Greenland and eastern Eurasia.
Habitat: Deep woodland, often where swampy.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Corallorhiza maculataspotted coralroot
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, east across southern Canada to the Great Lakes region and eastern North America.
Habitat: Moist to rather dry woods, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. maculata – spotted coralroot
var. occidentalis – western spotted coralroot
var. ozettensis – ozette coralroot
Corallorhiza mertensianaPacific coralroot, western coralroot
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south California, east to Alberta, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Usually in moist coniferous forests, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Corallorhiza striatastriped coralroot
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to California, east along the U.S. and Canadian border to the Atlantic coast.
Habitat: Moist humus in shady coniferous and deciduous forests, low to mid-elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. striata – hooded coralroot, striped coralroot
var. vreelandii – Vreeland's striped coralroot
Corallorhiza trifidaearly coralroot, northern coralroot, yellow coralroot
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across the northern half of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fairly deep, moist woods, montane to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cordylanthus capitatusYakima bird's-beak
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Dry, open woods and ridgelines from sagebrush desert to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Coreopsis grandiflorabigleaf tickseed
Origin: Introduced
Coreopsis lanceolatalance-leaved tickseed
Origin: Introduced
Coreopsis tinctoriacalliopsis, Columbia coreopsis
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest and along the lower Columbia River in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open and disturbed areas at low to mid elevations where seasonally moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Corispermum americanumAmerican bugseed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Sandy, open sites, including shorelines, fields and disturbed areas, from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
var. americanum – American bugseed
Corispermum hookeriHooker's bugseed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southeastern British Columbia to north-central Washington, east across Canada to Ontario.
Habitat: Sand dunes and sandy shores.
Origin: Native
Flowers: August-October
Growth Duration: Annual
var. pseudodeclinatum – Hooker's bugseed
Corispermum pacificumPacific bugseed
Distribution: Occurring along the Columbia River and east of the Cascades in Washington; southwestern Washington to northern Oregon, east to west-central Idaho; also in southwestern British Columbia.
Habitat: Dunes and sandy shorelines of desert areas and riverbanks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: August-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Corispermum pallasiiPallas' bugseed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to northwestern Oregon, east across Canada and the northern U.S. to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Sand dunes, sandy and gravelly areas along streams and rivers, wastelots.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: August-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Corispermum pallidumpale bugseed
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades, where historically endemic to central Washington; likely extinct.
Habitat: Sandy shorelines of streams and lakes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: August-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Corispermum villosumhairy bugseed
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest and west of the crest along the lower Columbia River in Washington; southern British Columbia to southern Oregon, east to the northern Rocky Mountain States, Great Plains, and Quebec.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert, often where alkaline.
Origin: Native
Flowers: August-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Cornus canadensisbunchberry, puddingberry
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; northeastern Washington to the Great Lakes region and northeastern North America; Greenland.
Habitat: Moist forest understory.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cornus nuttalliimountain dogwood, Nuttall's dogwood, Pacific dogwood, western flowering dogwood
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Open to rather dense damp forests, often along streams.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cornus occidentaliscreek dogwood, western red osier
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, through more common west of the crest; Alaska to California, east to Idaho, western Montana, and Nevada.
Habitat: Moist soil, especially along streams, from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cornus stoloniferared-osier dogwood
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, though more common east of the crest; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Moist soil, especially along streams, from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cornus unalaschkensiswestern bunchberry
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to northern California, east to western Montana.
Habitat: Moist woods, low elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Corrigiola litoralisstrapwort
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in southwestern Washington; southern British Columbia to Oregon; also in Maryland.
Habitat: Lake and pond margins, often where disturbed.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
ssp. litoralis – strapwort
Cortaderia jubatapurple pampas grass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Disturbed, open areas at low elevation.
Origin: Introduced from northern South America
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cortaderia selloanapampas grass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, in scattered states eastward to Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed, open soil of wastelots, abandoned fields, and roadsides at low elevations, often near coast.
Origin: Introduced from central South America
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Corydalis aquae-gelidaemarsh corydalis
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in southwestern Washington; southwestern Oregon to adjacent northwestern Oregon.
Habitat: Wet places of shaded forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Corydalis aureagolden corydalis, scrambled eggs
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains, Great Lakes region and northeastern North America.
Habitat: In varied habitats, from moist to dry and well-drained soil.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
ssp. aurea – golden corydalis, scrambled eggs
Corydalis scouleriScouler's fumewort
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon.
Habitat: Moist soil in shade, low elevations, from the coast to the foothills
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Corylus avellanacommon filbert, European hazelnut
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, also known from western Idaho.
Habitat: Abandoned plantings, roadsides, waste sites, forest edge.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: January-April
Growth Duration: Perennial
Corylus cornutabeaked hazelnut
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Forest edge and openings, thickets, and rocky slopes at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: January-March
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. californica – California hazelnut
ssp. cornuta – beaked hazelnut
Corynephorus canescensgray hairgrass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to northwestern Washington.
Habitat: Moist disturbed, open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Cota austriacaAustrian chamomile
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where known from the Pullman area; not known from elsewhere in North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cota tinctoriagolden chamomile, yellow chamomile
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across the central and northern regions of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cotoneaster atropurpureuspurple-flowering cotoneaster
Origin: Introduced
Cotoneaster dammeribearberry cotoneaster
Origin: Introduced from China
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cotoneaster dielsianusDiel's cotoneaster
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; southwest British Columbia to southwest Oregon.
Habitat: Thickets, open forest, rocky slopes, meadows, and grasslands at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from China
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cotoneaster divaricatusspreading cotoneaster
Origin: Introduced from China
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cotoneaster franchetiifranchet's cotoneaster, orange cotoneaster
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Lowland forest edges, grassy balds, and disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from China
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cotoneaster horizontalisrock cotoneaster, rockspray cotoneaster, wall cotoneaster
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; British Columbia to Oregon; also in Ontario, Canada.
Habitat: Fields, forest openings, and disturbed areas typically at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from China
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cotoneaster lacteuslate cotoneaster, milk-flower cotoneaster
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, thickets, and forest margins.
Origin: Introduced from China
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cotoneaster lucidusshiny cotoneaster
Origin: Introduced from Siberia and Mongolia
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cotoneaster rehderibullate cotoneaster, puckered-leaf cotoneaster
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; Alaska to Washington.
Habitat: Thickets, open clearings, forests, and shores typically at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from China
Flowers: May-Jun; fruiting Sep-Dec.
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cotoneaster salicifoliuswillow-leaved cotoneaster
Origin: Introduced from China
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cotoneaster simonsiiHimalayan cotoneaster, Simon's cotoneaster
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to central California.
Habitat: Thickets, forest openings, shorelines, balds, parks, and grasslands.
Origin: Introduced from southeast Asia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cotoneaster ×suecicus
Origin: Introduced
Cotoneaster tengyuehensisTengyueh cotoneaster
Origin: Introduced from China
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cotula coronopifoliabrass buttons, common brass buttons
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the Puget Sound, outer coast, and lower Columbia River shorelines. Alaska to California, east to Nevada and Arizona, also in northeastern North America.
Habitat: Tidal flats.
Origin: Introduced from South Africa
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Crassula aquaticawrinkle-seed pygmyweed, water pygmy weed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, and in the southeastern and northeastern regions of North America.
Habitat: Mud flats and vernal pools.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Crassula connatapygmy weed
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington in San Juan County; British Columbia to California, east to Arizona and Texas.
Habitat: Sandy areas, paths and roadsides.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Crassula tillaeamossy stonecrop
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, rock crevices, and sandy areas, often where seasonally wet or moist.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-April
Growth Duration: Annual
Crataegus castlegarensisCastlegar hawthorn
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to Idaho, Montana, and Utah.
Habitat: Grasslands, riparian zones, thickets, openings, and seeps.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Crataegus chrysocarpafireberry hawthorn
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east across the northern U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Thickets, dry slopes, shrub-steppe, riparian zones, forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Crataegus ×cogswelliiOregon hybrid hawthorn
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; western Washington to the Willamette Valley in Oregon.
Habitat: Wet prairie, thickets, and shores, generally occurring near where both parent species occur.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Crataegus douglasiiblack hawthorn, Douglas's hawthorn
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Saskatchewan, Idaho and Montana, also in the Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Thickets, open forests, forest edges, and riparian zones, from lowlands to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Crataegus gaylussaciahuckleberry hawthorn, Suksdorf's hawthorn
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; disjunct in southeast Alaska, otherwise southern British Columbia to California, east to Montana.
Habitat: Thickets, grasslands, riparian zones, shores, and meadows, from lowl to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Crataegus laevigatamidland hawthorn, woodland hawthorn
Distribution: Known only from the San Juan Islands in Washington.
Origin: Introduced from northern Europe
Growth Duration: Perennial
Crataegus macracanthalarge-thorned hawthorn, western large-thorned hawthorn
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to northeastern Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains, and further east across the U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Thickets, riparian zones, and pastures.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Crataegus monogynaEnglish hawthorn, one-seed hawthorn
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to Montana, also in the Great Lakes region and eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, pastures, meadows, thickets, and forest edge and understory at low elevations, often associated with disturbance. Seeds readily dispersed by birds.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. monogyna – common hawthorn, English hawthorn, one-seeded hawthorn
Crataegus okanaganensisOkanagan hawthorn
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington in northern Washington; southern British Columbia to northern Washington, east to northern Idaho.
Habitat: Mesic thickets, riparian zones, and shorelines.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Crataegus okennoniiO'Kennon's hawthorn
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Washington, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Thickets, riparian zones, and grasslands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Crataegus phaenopyrumWashington thorn
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; Washington to Oregon, and also in eastern North America where native.
Habitat: Grasslands, shores, and damp thickets.
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Crataegus phippsiiPhipps's hawthorn
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in north-central Washington; southern British Columbia to northern Washington, also in Montana but not known from Idaho.
Habitat: Floodplains, open forests, and thickets.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Crataegus tenuiorslender red hawthorn
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in north-central Washington; south-central British Columbia to north-central Washington.
Habitat: Grasslands, thickets, and forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Crepis acuminatalong-leaved hawksbeard, tapertip hawksbeard
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Dry slopes and forest openings from the foothiils to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Crepis atribarbaslender hawksbeard
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Nevada, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Dry slopes, sagebrush, and forest openings from foothills to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Crepis bakeriBaker's hawksbeard
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central Washington; central Washington to California.
Habitat: Dry slopes, sagebrush, and forest openings from the foothills to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Crepis barbigerabearded hawksbeard
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Oregon, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Sagebrush deserts to ponderosa pine forest openings at middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Crepis capillarissmooth hawksbeard
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas at low elevation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-November
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Crepis intermediagray hawksbeard, intermediate hawksbeard, limestone hawksbeard
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Open forest, grassland, meadows, rocky or sandy slopes, and ridges from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Crepis modocensislow hawksbeard, Modoc hawksbeard
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado.
Habitat: Common in shrub-steppe, sagebrush, and conifer forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Crepis nicaeensisFrench hawksbeard, Turkish hawksbeard
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to southwestern Oregon, also in western Montana, the Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, pastures, forest openings, and other disturbed areas, often where at least seasonally moist.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Crepis occidentaliswestern hawksbeard
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains of Canada and the U.S.
Habitat: Dry, open places, mostly in the foothills and plains, but also found in the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Crepis runcinatadandelion hawksbeard, meadow hawksbeard
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southeastern British Columbia to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Moist to dry meadows, marshes, seeps, shores, riverbanks, often where alkaline, from the lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. runcinata – dandelion hawksbeard, meadow hawksbeard
Crepis setosabristly hawksbeard, rough hawksbeard
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in southwestern Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California, also in Montana and eastern U.S.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Crepis tectorumannual hawksbeard, narrow leaf hawksbeard, rooftop hawksbeard
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across the northern regions of the U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Crocidium multicaulegold-star, spring-gold
Distribution: Occurring on both sides the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Dry, open areas from low to middle elevations, especially common in sagebrush.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Crocosmia ×crocosmiifloramontbretia
Origin: Introduced from South Africa
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. vernus – spring crocus
Croton setigerusdoveweed, turkey mullein, fish poison
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Baja California, east to western Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Dry, often sandy or rocky areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Cruciata pedemontanapiedmont bedstraw
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washngton; Washington to Oregon, east to Montana; in central and southeastern regions of the U.S.
Habitat: Disturbed sites, roadsides, waste areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Crupina vulgarisbearded creeper, crupina
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central and southeastern Washington to California, east to adjacent Idaho; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Crypsis alopecuroidesfoxtail pricklegrass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, and in eastern North America.
Habitat: Sandy soils around drying lake margins and other seasonally moist, disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from n. Africa and Eurasia
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Crypsis vaginifloramodest pricklegrass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington in the Grant County area; Washington to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, rocky parking areas, wastelots, and other disturbed sites.
Origin: Introduced from the western Mediterranean
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Cryptantha affinisquill cat's-eye, common cryptantha, slender cryptantha
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and South Dakota.
Habitat: Open areas from sagebrush to coniferous forest openings at moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Cryptantha ambiguabasin cat's-eye, obscure cryptantha, wilke's cryptantha
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to western Montana, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado.
Habitat: Dry, open places from the lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Cryptantha fendlerisand dune cat's-eye, Fendler's cryptantha
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Sand dunes and very sandy soil at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Cryptantha flaccidaweakstem cat's-eye, flaccid cryptantha
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; central Washington to southern California, east to Idaho, Nevada, and Utah.
Habitat: Dry, open slopes and flats at lower elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Cryptantha gracilisnarrow-stem cryptantha, slender cryptantha
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California east to Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado, and New Mexico.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert and grassy slopes at low elevations to ponderosa pine forest openings at middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Cryptantha grandifloralarge-flowered cryptantha
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southeastern Washington; southeastern Washington to northeastern Oregon, east to Salmon River area in western Idaho.
Habitat: Grasslands, open conifer forest, scree slopes, and volcanic-based substrates.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Cryptantha intermediaClearwater cat's-eye, common cryptantha
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington to California, east to western Idaho and northwestern Nevada.
Habitat: Forest openings, open slopes, and remnant balds at low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Annual
var. hendersonii – Henderson's common cryptantha
Cryptantha pterocaryawingnut cryptantha
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho, Colorado and Texas.
Habitat: Dry, open, often sandy areas of sagebrush and grasslands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
var. pterocarya – wingnut cryptantha
Cryptantha rostellatabeaked cryptantha
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to California.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert, open slopes and hillsides, typically where dry, at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Cryptantha scopariapinyon desert cat's-eye, desert cryptantha
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to California, east to Idaho, Utah, and Nevada.
Habitat: Dry, open slopes in the valleys, plains and foothills, common among sagebrush.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Cryptantha simulanspine woods cat's-eye, pine woods cryptantha
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert and ponderosa pine forest openings, often where disturbed.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Cryptantha torreyanaTorrey's cryptantha
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Montana.
Habitat: Open areas, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
var. torreyana – Torrey's cryptantha
Cryptantha watsoniiWatson's cryptantha
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Open hillsides, sagebrush-steppe plains, and forest openings at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Cryptogramma acrostichoidesAmerican parsley-fern, American rock-brake
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Lakes region, Colorado, and New Mexico.
Habitat: Cliff crevices and talus slopes at mid- to high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cryptogramma cascadensisCascades parsley-fern, Cascades rock-brake
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Montana
Habitat: Cliff crevices and talus slopes at mid- to high elevations in the mountains, occasionally descending to sea level in humid areas.
Origin: Native
Spores: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cryptogramma stellerifragile rock-brake, slender rock-brake, Steller's rock-brake
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; Alaska to northern Nevada, east to the Rocky Mountains; also in the Great Lakes region and northeastern North America.
Habitat: moist, shaded cliffs sand ledges, often on calcareous rocks, middle elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cuscuta approximataalfalfa dodder
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Agricultural fields, often on alfalfa, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia and northern Africa
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
var. approximata – alfalfa dodder
Cuscuta californicaCalifornia dodder, chaparral dodder
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; eastern Washington to California, east to Utah and Arizona.
Habitat: Drying shores, grassy slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
var. californica – California dodder
Cuscuta campestrisfield dodder
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to Utah and Texas; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Shores, floodplains, roadsides, ditches, fields, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Cuscuta cephalanthibuttonbush dodder
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Tideflat and floodplains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cuscuta denticulatadesert dodder
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Baja California, east to Colorado.
Habitat: Parasitic on Artemisia tridentata, occasionally on other hosts in sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Cuscuta epithymumclover dodder, common dodder, thyme dodder
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across the northern U.S. to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Parasitic on Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Poaceae, Rosaceae, etc.; dunes, floodplains, meadows, and roadsides.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
var. epithymum – clover dodder, thyme dodder
Cuscuta indecorainelegant dodder, large-seeded dodder
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Parasitic on alfalfa, Amaranthaceae, Asteraceae, and Polygonaceae, etc.; floodplains, sandbars, and shores.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
var. indecora – inelegant dodder, large-seeded dodder
Cuscuta occidentaliswestern dodder
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho and Colorado.
Habitat: Seasonally wet or alkaline meadows, vernal pools, and openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Cuscuta pacificasalt marsh dodder
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the coast in Washington; British Columbia to Baja California.
Habitat: Coastal marshes and saltwater tideflats.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: Annual
var. pacifica – Pacific dodder
Cuscuta pentagonafive-angled dodder
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Parasitic on a variety of hosts.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cuscuta suksdorfiimountain dodder
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Parasitic on Asteraceae and Fabaceae, occasionally other families; montane pond shores, floodplains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cusickiella douglasiialkali false whitlow-grass, Douglas' whitlow-grass
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the south-central area of Washington along the Columbia River; Washington to California, east to Idaho, Nevada, and Utah.
Habitat: Open, rocky ridges of the sagebrush desert, up into the lower mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cyclachaena xanthiifoliacarelessweed, burweed marsh-elder, tall marsh-elder
Distribution: Ocurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Bottomlands and other moist, open, often disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from south-central Canada and the central U.S.
Flowers: August-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Cyclamen hederifoliumivy-leaf cyclamen
Distribution: Occurring west of the Casacdes in lowland western Washington; southwestern British Columbia to the Willamette Valley in Oregon.
Habitat: Disturbed forest edge and lawns, where escaping from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: September-November
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cymbalaria muralisKenilworth-ivy, ivy-leaved toadflax
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, scattered eastward across North America to the Atlantic Coast where more broadly distributed.
Habitat: Roadsides, retaining walls, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas at low elevation.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Cymopterus foeniculaceusmontane spring parsley
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to northeastern Oregon, east to Montana, Wyoming and Utah.
Habitat: Forest openings, meadows, and other open, dry areas from montane to alpine areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cymopterus terebinthinusturpentine spring parsley
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; north-central Washington to northeast Oregon, east to western Idaho.
Habitat: Sand dunes and other dry, open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cynodon dactylonbermuda grass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, southern Great Plains and eastern North America.
Habitat: A weed of lawns, pastures, roadsides, railroad tracks, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cynoglossum officinalecommon hound's-tongue
Distribution: Widely distributed east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, meadows, forest edge, ditches, and other disturbed open areas; noxious weed.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Biennial
Cynosurus cristatuscrested dogtail
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, also in Idaho, Montana, and Colorado.
Habitat: Waste places, old meadows, roadsides, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cynosurus echinatusbristly dog's-tail grass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed open areas, including roadsides, grasslands, and wastelots.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Cyperus acuminatussharp-pointed flatsedge, taper-tip flatsedge
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Shores and vernal pools.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Cyperus bipartitusshining cyperus, shining flatsedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east across most of the U.S. to eastern Canada and the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Streambanks and other wet places in the valleys and lowlands; tolerant of alkali.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Cyperus diandrusumbrella flatsedge
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southern Washington; native to central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Emergent shorelines in sandy, peaty, or slightly brackish areas (though seldom where disturbed).
Origin: Introduced from eastern and central North America
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Cyperus eragrostistall flatsedge
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California, also along the southern and eastern U.S. coast.
Habitat: Damp to wet shores, ditches, roadsides, and other disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from South America
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cyperus erythrorhizosredroot flatsedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Pond and lake shores, streambanks, seeps, vernal pools, and ditches at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Cyperus esculentusyellow nut-grass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist, low ground along streams and ditches, but sometimes in drier ground.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. leptostachyus – yellow nutgrass
Cyperus fuscusbrown flatsedge, brown galingale
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern Washington to California, east to Nevada; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Damp, silty riverbanks.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Cyperus lupulinusGreat Plains flatsedge
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southeastern Washington; disjunct in southeastern Washington and adjacent Oregon and Idaho, otherwise from U.S. Great Plains to eastern Canada and Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Cobble riverbanks and rocky canyon slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. lupulinus – Great Plains flatsedge
Cyperus schweinitziisand flatsedge
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Sandy lakeshores and riverbanks.
Origin: Native east Cascades, introduced in Seattle, WA
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cyperus squarrosusawned flatsedge
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Lake and pond shores, banks of slow moving streams and rivers, and other wet, open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Cyperus strigosusfalse flatsedge, straw-colored flatsedge
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest and along the Columbia River in Washington; Washington to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet places, along the banks of large streams, in the valleys and lowlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cypripedium ×columbianumColumbia lady's-slipper, hybrid lady's-slipper
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cypripedium fasciculatumclustered lady's-slipper
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Santa Cruz County, California, east to Montana and Colorado.
Habitat: Moist to rather dry and rocky, open coniferous forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cypripedium montanummountain lady's-slipper
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Dry to moist open woods, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cypripedium parviflorumyellow lady's-slipper
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; throughout most of Canada and the central, southeastern, and northeastern regions of the U.S.
Habitat: Fens, wetlands, shorelines, and damp woodlands, often where calcareous.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. makasin – mocassin yellow lady's-slipper
var. pubescens – hairy yellow lady's-slipper
Cystopteris fragilisbladder fern, brittle fern, fragile fern
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across the northern half of North America to the Atlantic Coast; circumboreal.
Habitat: Moist to moderately dry, often rocky places, lowlands to above timberline
Origin: Native
Spores: April-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cytisus multiflorusportuguese broom, white Spanish broom
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cytisus scopariusScot's broom
Distribution: Distributed widely throughout much of Washington, especially in lowlands west of the Cascades crest; Alaska to California, east to Idaho and Montana; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Widespread noxious weed, usually where somewhat moist.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cytisus striatusFrench broom
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Disturbed open areas, including roadsides and wastelots.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial