Vascular Plants

Includes all flowering plants, conifers, ferns and fern-allies.


Browse by scientific name:

A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z
Scientific names beginning with B:
Baccharis pilularischaparral broom, coyote brush
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in southern Washington; Washington to California, also in New Mexico.
Habitat: Coastal dunes, bluffs, and thickets.
Origin: Native
Flowers: August-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. consanguinea – chaparral broom
Bacopa rotundifoliadisk water-hyssop, round-leaved water-hyssop
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in south-central Washington; south-central Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, native to central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Mudfalts, mud-bottomed pools, backchannels, and other slow-moving water of streams and rivers.
Origin: Introduced from central and eastern North America
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Balsamorhiza ×bonserihybrid balsamroot
Distribution: Local in eastern Washington where Balsamorhiza rosea is found
Habitat: Dry, rocky slopes at low elevation
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Balsamorhiza careyanaCarey's balsamroot
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to central Oregon.
Habitat: Open places, but not on lithosol, in the plains, foothills, and lower mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Balsamorhiza careyana × Balsamorhiza hookerihybrid balsamroot
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Balsamorhiza deltoideadeltoid balsamroot, Puget balsamroot
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Prairies, open slopes, and forest edge at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Balsamorhiza hookerihairy balsamroot, hare's head balsamroot, Hooker's balsamroot
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central Washington; Washington to California, east to western Montana, southern Idaho, and Nevada.
Habitat: Dry, open areas at low to moderate elevations, usually in lithosol (rocky, cobbly soil).
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Balsamorhiza hookeri × Balsamorhiza sagittatahybrid balsamroot
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Balsamorhiza incanahoary balsamroot, woolly balsamroot
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the southeastern counties in Washington; southeastern Washington to adjacent Oregon, east through Idaho to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Mesic meadows and slopes at lower to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Balsamorhiza rosearosy balsamroot
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in south-central Washington; south-central Washington to northeastern Oregon.
Habitat: Dry, rocky slopes at low elevation.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Balsamorhiza sagittataarrowleaf balsamroot
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Shrub-steppe, grasslands, and other open areas from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Balsamorhiza serrataserrrate balsamroot, toothed balsamroot
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in south-central and southeastern Washington; Washington to California, east to Nevada.
Habitat: Rock outcrops and dry, rocky knolls.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Balsamorhiza ×terebinthaceawormwood balsamroot
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Balsamorhiza ×tomentosawooly hybrid balsamroot
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Barbarea orthocerasAmerican wintercress rocket, yellow rocket
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Meadows, stream banks and moist woods, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Barbarea vernaBelle Isle cress, land cress, early yellow rocket, scurvygrass, early wintercress
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Idaho and Colorado; also in central and eastern U.S.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed sites.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Barbarea vulgarisyellow rocket, bitter wintercress
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Garden escape, found chiefly in wet places.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Biennial
Bassia hyssopifoliafive-hook bassia, five-hook smotherweed
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed habitats.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Bassia scopariared belvedere, mock cypress, summer cypress
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other dry, distrubed, open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from eastern Europe and southestern Asia
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Beckmannia syzigachneAmerican sloughgrass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Pond margins, marshes and ditches at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Bellardia viscosayellow glandweed
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California; also in south-central U.S.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, pastures, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia.
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Bellis perennisEnglish daisy, lawn daisy
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, and in central and eastern U.S.
Habitat: Fields, parks, lawns, balds, wastelots, and other disturbed or cultivated areas, usually where moist.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: March-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Berberis darwiniidarwin's barberry
Distribution: Occasional near the coast in Oregon and California.
Habitat: Prefers high humidity; rarely escapes cultivation
Origin: Introduced
Growth Duration: Perennial
Berberis julianaewintergreen barberry
Distribution: Occurring in lowlands west of Cascades crest in Washington; also in Mississippi and New York.
Habitat: Disturbed, shrubby areas at low elevations, often where wet or marshy.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Berberis thunbergiiJapanese barberry
Distribution: Sparingly introduced in Washington; escaped throughout central and eastern United States and Canada.
Habitat: Disturbed areas
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Berberis vulgariscommon barberry, European barberry
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Washington, east to Idaho and Montana; also occurring in central and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Dry waste ground, forest understory, and other disturbed sites.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bergia texanaTexas bergia
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where known historically from Klickitat County (likely extirpated); Washington to California, east to the Great Plains and the central U.S.
Habitat: Emergent in muddy soils of ponds, lakes, ditches, rivers, and streams.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Berteroa incanahoary alyssum
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Uncommon in dry, waste places in most of the Pacific Northwest; common in northeast Washington.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Berula incisa
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to central North America.
Habitat: Wet areas, often emergent in ponds, lakes, and back water channels, at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Betula glandulosaresin birch, swamp birch
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountain States and to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Stream banks, margins of marshes, lakes and bogs, and on alpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Betula occidentalisred birch, river birch, water birch
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east in Canada to Ontario, east in the U.S. to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Moist areas, streambanks at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: February-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Betula papyriferacanoe birch, paper birch, western paper birch, white birch
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to northeastern Oregon, east across the northern U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist, open to dense woods at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Betula pendulaEuropean weeping birch
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to Oregon; also in northeastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas associated with urban and suburban development where the trees escape from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Betula populifolia
Origin: Introduced
Betula pubescens
Origin: Introduced
Betula pumilabog birch, swamp birch
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to Oregon, east to northern Idaho and western Montana, east to the Atlantic.
Habitat: Wet places, often in swamps and bogs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Betula ×utahensishybrid birch
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Washington, east to the northern Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Moist, open to dense woodlands or swamps from lowlands to montane.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bidens amplissimaVancouver Island beggar-ticks
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in the northern Puget Trough area in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to King County, Washington.
Habitat: Wetlands, estuaries, pond and stream margins.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bidens beckiiBeck's water marigold
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Montana, east across Canada to the Great Lakes region and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Lowland ponds and lakes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bidens cernuanodding beggar-ticks, bur-marigold
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Stream banks, pond and lake edges, and other wet places at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Bidens connatapurplestem beggars-ticks, swamp beggar-ticks
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Idaho and Montana; native from central North America east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Marshes, shorelines and other wet, sunny areas.
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America
Flowers: August-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bidens frondosaleafy beggar-ticks, devil's pitchfork, sticktight
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Shores of ponds, lakes, backwater channels, and other wetland areas at low elevations, often where disturbed.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Bidens tripartitathree-lobed beggar-ticks
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast where native.
Habitat: Wet places, often where disturbed, primarily at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia and eastern North America
Flowers: August-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Bidens vulgatatall beggar-ticks, western sticktight
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across all but the southwestern U.S. to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Streamsides, ponds, lakes, ditches and other moist to wet waste places.
Origin: Introduced from British Columbia
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Bistorta bistortoidesAmerican bistort, western bistort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Streambanks and moist or swampy meadows, middle elevations in the mountains to alpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bistorta viviparaalpine bistort, serpent-grass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; Alaska to Oregon and Nevada, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Damp areas, shady woods, meadows and streambanks at mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Blepharipappus scaberblepharipappus, rough eyelashweed
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southeastern Washington; southeastern Washington to California, east to Idaho and northwest Nevada.
Habitat: Grasslands, open slopes, forest edge, sagebrush desert, and other open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Blitum capitatumstrawberry blite, Indian ink, Indian paint
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast primarily in the northern half of North America.
Habitat: Open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Blitum hastatumIndian ink , Indian-paint, strawberry-blight
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in north-central and northeastern Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, and east across Canada to the Great Lakes region and eastern North America.
Habitat: Moist to dry soil, sandy or grassy meadows, thickets, open woods, old fields of clearings in forest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Blitum nuttallianumNuttall's povertyweed
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Dry to moist, saline or alkaline soil, from the desert plains to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Blitum spathulatumprostrate monolepis
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where disjunct in Okanogan County; central Oregon to Baja California, east to Nevada
Habitat: Desert regions, often where alkaline or saline.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Blitum virgatumleafy goosefoot
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east across the U.S. in scattered locations to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Boechera atrorubensdark-red-flowered rockcress
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central Washington; Washington to north-central Oregon.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert to ponderosa pine forest openings and meadows, from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Boechera calderiCalder's rockcress
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the northern and central Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Subalpine ridges and meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Boechera cascadensisCascades rockcress
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central and southeastern Washington; also known from Baker County, Oregon.
Habitat: Rock outcroppings, often of volcanic origin.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Boechera cusickiiCusick's rockcress
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; east-central Washington to Nevada, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Sagebrush flats to open Ponderosa pine forests, often on lithosol.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Boechera divaricarpaspreading-pod rockcress
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: From middle elevations to subalpine areas in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Boechera grahamiiGraham's rockcress
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; Alaska to Washington, east across Canada and the northern U.S. to New England.
Habitat: Rocky and sandy soil, prairies to open forest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Boechera lemmoniiLemmon's rockcress
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Alpine meadows, ridges and talus slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Boechera lyalliiLyall's rockcress, murry's rockcress
Distribution: Widely distributed in the mountains throughout Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Subalpine to alpine ridges, cliffs, and drier meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Boechera microphyllalittle-leaf rockcress, small-leaved rockcress
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to eastern Oregon, east to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Low montane to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Boechera paddoensisMt. Adams rockcress
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest from the Wenatchee Mountains to the Mt. Adams area; Washington to northeastern Oregon.
Habitat: Alpine slopes and talus.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Boechera paucifloraColumbia rockcress, few-flowered rockcress, small-flowered rockcress
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia o California, east to Montana and Utah.
Habitat: Sagebrush and ponderosa pine openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Boechera pauperculasmall-flowered rockcress
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in the Olympic Mountains in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho and Wyoming.
Habitat: Rocky slopes and talus, subalpine to alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Boechera pendulocarpadangle-pod rockcress
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Utah.
Habitat: Sagebrush, ponderosa pine openings, and open slopes at middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Boechera polyanthamany-flowered rockcress
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; south-central British Columbia to northeastern Oregon, east to western Montana and southwestern Idaho.
Habitat: Open, rocky or gravelly areas from low to middle elevations
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Boechera puberulaBlue Mountain rockcress, hoary rockcress
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to southern Idaho and Utah.
Habitat: Rocky slopes and hillsides among sagebrush or open woodlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Boechera retrofractareflexed rockcress
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, and east across Canada to Ontario.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert to forest openings at middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Boechera sparsifloraelegant rockcress, slender rockcress
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho, Nevada, and Utah.
Habitat: From sagebrush plains to forest openings and meadows at moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Boechera strictaCanadian rockcress, Drummond's rockcress
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska o California, east to the Rocky Mountains, and east along the northern U.S. and southern Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open areas in the forest from middle elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Boechera suffrutescenswoody rockcress
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central and southeastern Washington; central Washington to California, east to central Idaho.
Habitat: Rocky slopes and dry ridges in ponderosa pine forest openings and sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Bolandra oregananorthern false coolwort
Distribution: Occurring in the Columbia River Gorge and in southeastern Washington; southern Washington to adjacent Oregon, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Moist, mossy rocks, usually near waterfalls.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bolboschoenus fluviatilisriver bulrush
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fresh or brackish marshes and quiet water, occasionally more than 1 meter deep,
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bolboschoenus maritimusseacoast tuberous bulrush
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across much of North America; cosmopolitan.
Habitat: Salt marshes, wet meadows, and margins of ponds, especially in alkaline or saline areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. paludosus – saltmarsh bulrush, seacoast bulrush
Boltonia asteroideswhite doll's daisy
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the lower Columbia River in southwestern Washington; southwestern Washington to adjacent northwestern Oregon, otherwise native from the Great Plains to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Lowland flood plains and wet meadows.
Origin: Introduced from central and eastern North America
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. recognita – white doll's daisy
Borago officinalisborage, common borage
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across the northern U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Waste ground and disturbed soil.
Origin: Introduced from southern Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Botrychium ascendensupswept moonwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado.
Habitat: Montane to subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Spores: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Botrychium campestrefield moonwort
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Subalpine meadows and scree, or rarely under Thuja plicata.
Origin: Native
Spores: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. lineare – narrow-leaf grapefern, slender moonwort
Botrychium crenulatumdainty moonwort, scalloped moonwort
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado, rarely to Minnesota and Ontario.
Habitat: Edges of montane fens, wet meadows, or seeps, often in dense vegetation or shade
Origin: Native
Spores: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Botrychium hesperiumwestern moonwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Mesic, often gravelly, montane to subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Spores: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Botrychium lanceolatumlance-leaved grapefern, red triangle moonwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washington, and through the Rocky Mountains to New Mexico; circumboreal.
Habitat: Moist or wet places in the mountains, occasionally to high elevations
Origin: Native
Spores: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Botrychium michiganenseMichigan moonwort
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; British Columbia to Washington, east to Montana and Wyoming, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and Quebec.
Habitat: Mesic montane meadows.
Origin: Native
Spores: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Botrychium minganenseMingan moonwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Colorado and to Maine across the northern tier of states
Habitat: Mesic, montane to subalpine meadows, and seeps, and in duff under Thuja plicata.
Origin: Native
Spores: June-Agust
Growth Duration: Perennial
Botrychium montanumwestern goblin, mountain moonwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana
Habitat: Moist duff under Thuja plicata or Calocedrus decurrens, occasionally also fens and moist subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Spores: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Botrychium neolunariacommon moonwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Mesic, montane to subalpine meadows and vegetated scree.
Origin: Native
Spores: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Botrychium paradoxumparadox moonwort, two-spiked moonwort
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern Canada to Utah and Colorado, w to central Washington, northeast Oregon, and disjunct in California.
Habitat: Montane to subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Spores: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Botrychium pedunculosumstalked moonwort
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to northwestern Montana, and in eastern Canada.
Habitat: Mesic, montane meadows to dense forests.
Origin: Native
Spores: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Botrychium pinnatumnorthwestern moonwort, St. John
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist subalpine meadows to closed forests, often near seeps.
Origin: Native
Spores: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Botrychium simplexleast moonwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; also from the Great Lakes east to the Atlantic Coast from Canada to North Carolina; circumboreal.
Habitat: Montane to subalpine in moist meadows.
Origin: Native
Spores: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. compositum – least moonwort
var. simplex – little grapefern, least moonwort
Botrychium viridegreen triangle moonwort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, also in New Mexico.
Habitat: Moist montane or subalpine meadows to open forest or thickets.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Botrypus virginianusrattlesnake fern, common grapefern, Virginia grapefern
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest and in the northeastern counties in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast; also in Eurasia.
Habitat: Moist woods and thickets, seldom in meadows, from valleys to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Boykinia intermediagreater boykinia, Sierran brookfoam
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest on the Olympic Peninsula in Washington; Washington south along the coast to central Oregon.
Habitat: Moist woods, meadows, streambanks, roadside ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Boykinia occidentaliscoastal brookfoam
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Moist woods and along streams, lowlands and along the coast.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Brachypodium sylvaticumfalse brome
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; British Columbia to California; also in Virginia.
Habitat: Roadsides, forest edge, and other disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced Eurasia and North Africa
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
ssp. sylvaticum – false brome
Brasenia schreberiwatershield
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to much of Canada and the eastern United States.
Habitat: Shallow ponds and sluggish streams.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Brassica junceabrown mustard, leaf mustard
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed areas including fields, roadsides and wastelots.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Brassica napusrapeseed
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas including fields, roadsides, and wastelots, where often escaped from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Brassica nigrablack mustard
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Brassica oleraceacabbage, wild cabbage
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, also in scattered locations across North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas including fields, roadsides, and wastelots, where escaped from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Brassica rapacommon mustard, field mustard, wild turnip
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-Septemeber
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Brewerimitella brewerifeathery bishop's-cap, Brewer's mitrewort
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Brewerimitella ovaliscoastal bishop's-cap, coastal mitrewort
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Brickellia grandifloratasselflower brickellbush, large flowered tasselflower, large flowered thoroughwort
Distribution: Occasional east of the Cascades in Washington and Oregon.
Habitat: Openings in woods at moderate elevations, sometimes in plains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Brickellia microphyllasmall-leaved brickellbush
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southeastern Washington; southeastern Washington to California, east to Idaho, Wyoming, Colorado, and Arizona.
Habitat: Dry, rocky foothills, canyons, washes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: August-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. microphylla – small-leaved brickellbush, small-leaved brickellia
Brickellia oblongifolianarrow-leaved brickellbush, narrow-leaved thoroughwort
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Dry, often rocky places from lowland sagebrush desert to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. oblongifolia – narrowleaf brickellia
Briza maximabig quakinggrass
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California; also in the southwestern U.S. and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Dry to moist roadsides, wastelots, meadows, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced Europe
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Brodiaea coronariacrown brodiaea, harvest brodiaea
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California.
Habitat: Grasslands, balds, prairies, and open hillsides at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Brodiaea roseaIndian Valley brodiaea
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Coastal balds and grasslands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. rosea – Indian Valley brodiaea
Bromus arenariusAustralian brome
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Californai, east to Nevada and Arizona.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Bromus briziformisrattlesnake brome
Distribution: Southern British Columbia south to California, east to Idaho and Montana; occasional in eastern United States.
Habitat: Waste ground, roadsides, and overgrazed areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: Late May - July
Growth Duration: Annual
Bromus ciliatusfringed brome
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Damp meadows, thickets, woodlands, and stream banks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bromus commutatusmeadow brome
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Waste ground, meadows, and roadsides.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Bromus diandrusgreat brome, ripgut brome, ripgut grass
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, southern Great Plains, and in eastern North America.
Habitat: Grassy balds, prairies, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Bromus hordeaceussoft chess
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Baja California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Prairies, bluffs, grasslands, waste ground, roadsides, dry hillsides, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Bromus inermissmooth brome
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, meadows, parks, and other disturbed open areas; often planted for hay and soil stabilization.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bromus japonicusJapanese brome
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert and grasslands to lower mountain forests; often a weed of roadsides and waste land.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Bromus orcuttianusChinook brome
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern Washington to California, east to Nevada and Arizona.
Habitat: Dry hillsides, rocky slopes, montane meadows, and open coniferous forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bromus pacificusPacific brome
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon.
Habitat: Meadows and forest openingsat low elevations, often near or along the coast.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bromus pumpellianusarctic brome
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains, east across Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Stream banks, lake shores, sand dunes, meadows, grassy slopes, and roadsides
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
ssp. pumpellianus – arctic brome
Bromus racemosusbald brome
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Bromus rubensfox-tail brome
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in south-central Washington; south-central Washington to California, east to Idaho, Utah and Arizona.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas including overgrazed lands.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Bromus secalinusrye brome
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed, open ground.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Bromus sitchensisAlaska brome, Sitka brome
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains
Habitat: Dry to moist open areas from lowlands to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
var. aleutensis – Aleut brome
var. carinatus – California brome
var. marginatus – large mountain brome
var. polyanthus – smooth brome
var. sitchensis – Sitka brome
Bromus squarrosuscorn brome
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east in scattered locations to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open, disturbed areas including fields, meadows, and forest openings.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Bromus sterilispoverty brome
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Southern British Columbia to California, east to Idaho, the southern Rocky Mountains, and Texas; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Fields, grassy balds, roadside, wastelots, and other disturbed places.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Bromus suksdorfiiSuksdorf's brome
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southern Washington; southern Washington to California.
Habitat: Open subalpine forest and slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bromus tectorumsoft brome, cheatgrass
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Baja California, Mexico, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert, grasslands, prairies, meadows, balds, roadsides, wastelots, and other distrubed open areas from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Bromus vulgarisColumbian brome
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south along the coast to northern California, east to Alberta, Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Shaded to open woods or moist to dry banks, from near sea level to mountain meadows and dry, rocky slopes at 6000' elevation.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bryonia albawhite bryony
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in eastern and southeastern Washington; Washington east to Montana, south to Utah.
Habitat: Disturbed areas where escaped from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Buddleja davidiiorange-eye butterfly-bush
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, also in Idaho and the eastern United States.
Habitat: Fields, riparian corridors, thickets, forest edge, wastelots, and other disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Asia
Flowers: March-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Buglossoides arvensiscorn gromwell, field gromwell
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, and other dry, open, often disturbed sites in sagebrush desert to ponderosa pine forest openings.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Butomus umbellatusflowering rush
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east across the northern U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Shorelines of major rivers, wetlands, and ponds.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial