Vascular Plants

Includes all flowering plants, conifers, ferns and fern-allies.

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Common names beginning with S:
755 common names
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Index to common names:
sacaton, sage, sagebrush, sagewort, sago-pondweed, saintfoin, saitas, salal, salmonberry, salsify, salt and pepper, salt cedar, saltbush, saltcedar, saltgrass, saltlover, saltwort, sand verbena, sandbur, sandcarpet, sandfain, sandgrass, sandmat, sandreed, sandspurry, sandweed, sandwort, sanicle, sarsaparilla, saskatoon, sawwort, saxifrage, scalepod, scent-bottle, scheuchzeria, scorpion-grass, scorpion-weed, scorzonella, scouring rush, scrambled eggs, scratchgrass, scurf-pea, scurvy-grass, sea-blush, sea-pink, sea-rocket, sea-watch, seablite, seawrack, sedge, seepweed, sego-lily, self-heal, semaphore grass, senna, serpent-grass, serpentweed, service-tree, serviceberry, shadscale, sheepburr, shepherd's-purse, shooting star, shotweed, sibbaldia, sicklegrass, sidalcea, sidebells, silene, silky-bent, silver-berry, silverback, silvercrown, silvergrass, silverpuffs, silverweed, single-delight, six-weeks grass, skeletonplant, skeletonweed, skullcap, skunkweed, skyrocket, sloughgrass, smartweed, smelowskia, smoke, smooth medic, smotherweed, snakeroot, snakeweed, snapdragon, sneezeweed, snout, snow-in-summer, snow-queen, snowberry, snowdrops, soapberry, soapwort, softgrass, soliva, Solomon's-seal, soopolallie, sorghum, sorrel, sow-thistle, sowbane, Spanish-broom, spatterdock, spearmint, spearwort, speedwell, spiderflower, spike-rush, spikemoss, spikenard, spikerush, spikeweed, spinach, spindle tree, spineflower, spiraea, spleenwort, sponge-plant, spoonwort, sprangletop, spring parsley, spring-gold, springbeauty, spruce, spurge, spurge-laurel, spurry, squashberry, squirreltail, St. John's wort, staggerweed, star-of-Bethlehem, star-thistle, star-tulip, starflower, stargrass, starwort, steeplebush, steer's-head, stephanomeria, stickseed, sticktight, sticky-laurel, sticky-willy, stinkgrass, stinkweed, stinky-Bob, stitchwort, stock, stonecrop, stoneseed, stork's-bill, stranvaesia, strapwort, strawberry, strawberry tree, strawberry-blight, strawberry-tomato, streptanthella, succory, sugarbowls, sugarstick, sulfurflower, sumac, suncup, sundew, sunflower, sunshine, surf-grass, swainsonpea, swampcandles, sweet-cicely, sweet-clover, sweet-vetch, sweetbrier, sweetgale, sweetgrass, swertia, swinecress, sword-fern, sycamore, synthyris
Alkali sacaton (Sporobolus airoides)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California and Mexico, east to the Great Plains; introduced in eastern North America.
Habitat: Mesic or damp slopes and flats, often where alkaline, shores, grasslands, vernal pools, and hot springs at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
African sage (Salvia aethiopis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: A weed of dry waste places and roadsides.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Biennial
Gray ball sage (Salvia dorrii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Utah and Arizona.
Habitat: Dry, open, often sandy or rocky areas in sagebrush plains and foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Prairie sage (Artemisia ludoviciana)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Meadows and open slopes, from the lowlands to the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Purple sage (Salvia dorrii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Utah and Arizona.
Habitat: Dry, open, often sandy or rocky areas in sagebrush plains and foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Russian sage (Salvia yangii)
Distribution: Reported from east of the Cascades crest in central Washington; south-central British Columbia to central Washington.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Dry plains and foothills to the subalpine, but not in lithosol or alkaline soil.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cut-leaf sagebrush (Artemisia tripartita)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon and Nevada, east to Idaho and Wyoming.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert and grasslands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dwarf sagebrush (Artemisia arbuscula)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Open, dry plains and hills in sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hoary sagebrush (Artemisia cana)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Meadows and forest openings from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Low sagebrush (Artemisia arbuscula)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Open, dry plains and hills in sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Prairie sagebrush (Artemisia frigida)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washington, east to the Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Dry, open sagebrush plains and foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Scabland sagebrush (Artemisia rigida)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Oregon, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Dry, rocky places from the plains and foothills to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: September-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Silver sagebrush (Artemisia cana)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Meadows and forest openings from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Snowfield sagebrush (Artemisia spiciformis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to California, east to southwestern Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado.
Habitat: Cool, moist slopes, from middle elevations to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spiked sagebrush (Artemisia spiciformis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to California, east to southwestern Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado.
Habitat: Cool, moist slopes, from middle elevations to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Stiff sagebrush (Artemisia rigida)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Oregon, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Dry, rocky places from the plains and foothills to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: September-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Threetip sagebrush (Artemisia tripartita)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon and Nevada, east to Idaho and Wyoming.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert and grasslands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Douglas's sagewort (Artemisia douglasiana)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington to California, east to Nevada.
Habitat: Mostly along stream banks and river bottoms.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dragon sagewort (Artemisia dracunculus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert to ponderosa pine forest openings at middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lemon sagewort (Artemisia michauxiana)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta and Wyoming.
Habitat: Rocky places in the mountains at rather high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mountain sagewort (Artemisia norvegica)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Subalpine and alpine areas, typically where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pacific sagewort (Artemisia campestris)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast; also in Eurasia.
Habitat: Open places, often in sandy or rocky soil, from low elevations to alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Prairie sagewort (Artemisia frigida)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washington, east to the Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Dry, open sagebrush plains and foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Suksdorf's sagewort (Artemisia suksdorfii)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Bluffs, beaches, rocky areas, and riverbanks, especially near the coast.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sweet sagewort (Artemisia annua)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed open places.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: August-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Sago-pondweed (Stuckenia pectinata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Shallow to deep, fresh to brackish water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Saintfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains, also in eastern North America,
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern saitas (Dichelostemma congestum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Grassy meadows, rocky prairies and sagebrush slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Salal (Gaultheria shallon)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Forest understory and edge marine headlands, from sea level to moderate elevation in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, disjunct in northern Idaho.
Habitat: Lowland moist woods and swamps to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Meadow salsify (Tragopogon pratensis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields and waste places, usually in slightly moist areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Biennial
Purple salsify (Tragopogon porrifolius)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields and waste places, usually where moist.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Biennial
Yellow salsify (Tragopogon dubius)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, meadows, wastelots, overgrazed areas, and other disturbed open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Salt and pepper (Lomatium gormanii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Oregon, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Open slopes and scablands in the foothills, valleys and plains, often with sagebrush.
Origin: Native
Flowers: December-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hybrid salt cedar (Tamarix chinensis × Tamarix ramosissima)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where known only from Walla Walla County; expected to occur wherever the two parent species co-occur.
Habitat: Riparian zones in arid areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Salt cedar (Tamarix ramosissima)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; south-central British Columbia to California, east to the Great Plains and southeastern U.S.
Habitat: Riparian zones and other moist to wet areas in arid regions.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Small-flower salt cedar (Tamarix parviflora)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; south-central British Columbia to California, east to the southern Rocky Mountains and southern Great Plains.
Habitat: Mostly in riparian areas in arid regions.
Origin: Introduced from southern Europe and northern Africa
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Baltic saltbush (Atriplex longipes)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in northwestern Washington; southwestern British Columbia to northwestern Washington.
Habitat: Marine gravel, mudflats.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Sand or gravel slopes and sagebrush flats, saline or not.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Gardner's saltbush (Atriplex gardneri)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Sagebrush-steppe desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Gmelin's saltbush (Atriplex gmelinii)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the coast in Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: On coastal beaches, strands, and rocky outcroppings near the high tide in saline soil.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Hoary saltbush (Atriplex canescens)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Sand or gravel slopes and sagebrush flats, saline or not.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Saline saltbush (Atriplex dioica)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, but particularly common along the inner and outer marine coast; Yukon Territory to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Salt marshes, sea beaches and headlands, also inland on disturbed or saline ground;
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Hybrid saltcedar (Tamarix chinensis × Tamarix ramosissima)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where known only from Walla Walla County; expected to occur wherever the two parent species co-occur.
Habitat: Riparian zones in arid areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Saltcedar (Tamarix ramosissima)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; south-central British Columbia to California, east to the Great Plains and southeastern U.S.
Habitat: Riparian zones and other moist to wet areas in arid regions.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Small-flower saltcedar (Tamarix parviflora)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; south-central British Columbia to California, east to the southern Rocky Mountains and southern Great Plains.
Habitat: Mostly in riparian areas in arid regions.
Origin: Introduced from southern Europe and northern Africa
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Coastal (Distichlis spicata)
Distribution: Vancouver Island, British Columbia, south to California; also along the east coast of the United States from Canada to Florida and Texas.
Habitat: Coastal beaches, salt marshes, and inland areas where alkaline.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Saltlover (Halogeton glomeratus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other distrubed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Low saltwort (Salicornia depressa)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest ialong the marine coast in Washington; Alaska to California; also along the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Salt marshes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Red glasswort saltwort (Salicornia rubra)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon to California, east to the Rocky Mountains Great Plains, and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Saline or alkaline soil.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Saltwort (Salicornia rubra)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon to California, east to the Rocky Mountains Great Plains, and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Saline or alkaline soil.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Honey-scented sandverbena (Abronia mellifera)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; eastern Washington to southeastern Oregon, east to Montana and western Wyoming.
Habitat: Dunes and sandy soil at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pink sand verbena (Abronia umbellata)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the outer coast in Washington; British Columbia to Baja California.
Habitat: Coastal sandy beaches and adjacent dunes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Yellow sand verbena (Abronia latifolia)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington along the coast; Vancouver Island, British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Coastal beaches and sand dunes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Longspine sandbur (Cenchrus longispinus)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Mexico, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Sandy river banks and other disturbed, seasonally moist areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Mat sandbur (Cenchrus longispinus)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Mexico, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Sandy river banks and other disturbed, seasonally moist areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Sandcarpet (Cardionema ramosissimum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the coast in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Sandy beaches along the coast.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sandfain (Onobrychis viciifolia)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains, also in eastern North America,
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Purple sandgrass (Triplasis purpurea)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington in the Lower Columbia River area; southwestern Washington to adjacent Oregon; native from southern Rocky Mountains and Great Plains to the Atlantic coast.
Habitat: Sandy riverbanks.
Origin: Introduced from central and eastern North America
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rib seed sandmat (Euphorbia glyptosperma)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Dry, sandy soil, from the plains to the lower mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Sandmat (Cardionema ramosissimum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the coast in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Sandy beaches along the coast.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sandmat (Euphorbia maculata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed soil and waste areas.
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Prairie sandreed (Calamovilfa longifolia)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southeastern British Columbia to eastern Washington, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Prairies and foothills, where escaped from soil stabilization plantings.
Origin: Introduced from central and eastern North America
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Alkali sandspurry (Spergularia diandra)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Saskatchewan and Idaho.
Habitat: River shores, often where sandy.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Beach sandspurry (Spergularia macrotheca)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the coastal areas in Washington; British Columbia to Baja California.
Habitat: Along the sea shore, often in salt marshes and rock crevices in the splash zone.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bocconi's sandspurry (Spergularia bocconei)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; western Washington to California.
Habitat: Saltmarshes and sandy places.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Canada sandspurry (Spergularia canadensis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the coast in Washington; Alaska to California; also in central Canada and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Coastal tidelands and mudflats.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Red sandspurry (Spergularia rubra)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; also from the Great Lakes region to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, parking areas, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-October
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Saltmarsh sandspurry (Spergularia salina)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington British Columbia to California, east across North America.
Habitat: Saline or brackish areas along the coast, and alkaline areas inland.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Sandweed (Athysanus pusillus)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana.
Habitat: Dry, open, often grassy places.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Alpine sandwort (Cherleria obtusiloba)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to central Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains as far south as New Mexico.
Habitat: Dry, subalpine to alpine slopes and tundra.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Annual sandwort (Sabulina pusilla)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest from Klickitat County to the southeastern counties in Washington; southern Washington to California, east to northeastern Oregon and adjacent Idaho.
Habitat: Dry, rocky cliffs and outcroppings in sagebrush desert to ponderosa pine forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Ballhead sandwort (Eremogone congesta)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert to alpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Basalt sandwort (Sabulina basaltica)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington, where known only from the northeastern Olympic Mountains in Washington.
Habitat: Rocky outcroppings and exposed areas in the subalpine and alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Blunt-leaf sandwort (Moehringia lateriflora)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, though more common east of the crest; Alaska to Oregon and Nevada, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Forest understory and edge, open meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bluntleaf sandwort (Moehringia lateriflora)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, though more common east of the crest; Alaska to Oregon and Nevada, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Forest understory and edge, open meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Capitate sandwort (Eremogone congesta)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert to alpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dwarf sandwort (Sabulina pusilla)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest from Klickitat County to the southeastern counties in Washington; southern Washington to California, east to northeastern Oregon and adjacent Idaho.
Habitat: Dry, rocky cliffs and outcroppings in sagebrush desert to ponderosa pine forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Franklin's sandwort (Eremogone franklinii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central Washington; Washington to Oregon, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Sand dunes, scabland, and sagebrush slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Large-leaf sandwort (Moehringia macrophylla)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, also east across Canada to the Great Lakes region and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Moist to dry, shaded to open woods, meadows and rocky slopes in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Marsh sandwort (Arenaria paludicola)
Distribution: Presumed extirpated from Washington; historically west of the Cascades crest along the coast. California to Central America.
Habitat: Swampy places, mostly along coast.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mountain sandwort (Eremogone capillaris)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to northern Oregon and northern Nevada, east to Northwest Territory, Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Mostly montane to alpine meadows and slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Needle-leaf sandwort (Eremogone aculeata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southeastern Washington; southeastern Washington to California, east to Montana, Utah, and Nevada.
Habitat: Gravelly sagebrush-covered hills from moderate elevations to the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Nuttall's sandwort (Sabulina nuttallii)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Sagebrush hills to alpine slopes, especially on gravelly benches or talus.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Olympic sandwort (Sabulina basaltica)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington, where known only from the northeastern Olympic Mountains in Washington.
Habitat: Rocky outcroppings and exposed areas in the subalpine and alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Prickly sandwort (Eremogone aculeata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southeastern Washington; southeastern Washington to California, east to Montana, Utah, and Nevada.
Habitat: Gravelly sagebrush-covered hills from moderate elevations to the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Seabeach sandwort (Honckenya peploides)
Distribution: Occuring west of the Cascades crest in the coastal counties in Washington; Alaska to northern Oregon, east across Canada to coastal northeastern North America; Greenland and arctic Eurasia.
Habitat: Coastal beaches, strands, and sand dunes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Slender sandwort (Sabulina macra)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon.
Habitat: Lowlands, prairies and coastal bluffs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Thread-leaved sandwort (Eremogone capillaris)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to northern Oregon and northern Nevada, east to Northwest Territory, Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Mostly montane to alpine meadows and slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Thyme-leaf sandwort (Arenaria serpyllifolia)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Dry to moist, barren to wooded places.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Twin Sisters sandwort (Sabulina sororia)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington, where endemic to the Twin Sisters Range in Whatcom County.
Habitat: Rocky outcroppings and exposed areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Two-flowered sandwort (Cherleria biflora)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, and in Rocky Mountains to Colorado and Arizona; circumboreal
Habitat: Moist subalpine to alpine slopes, often near snowbanks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bear's-foot sanicle (Sanicula arctopoides)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the coast in Washington; Vancouver Island, B.C. south along the coast to California.
Habitat: Maritime species of coastal bluffs, meadows, and balds.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pacific sanicle (Sanicula crassicaulis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Meadows, balds, prairies, and open woods from the coast to low elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Purple sanicle (Sanicula bipinnatifida)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Balds, forest edge, and other open to partially shaded areas at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wild sarsaparilla (Aralia nudicaulis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; Yukon Territory to northeastern Washington, east to and south in Rocky Mountains, east to eastern North America.
Habitat: Moist, shaded soil.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Saskatoon (Amelanchier alnifolia)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains.
Habitat: Open woods, canyons and hillsides, sea level to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
American sawwort (Saussurea americana)
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympics and Cascades mountains in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east to Alberta, Montana, and Idaho.
Habitat: Meadows and open, often rocky slopes, where moist, at mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Alpine saxifrage (Micranthes tolmiei)
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic and Cascade mountains in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to Idaho, Montana, Nevada and Utah.
Habitat: Mountain meadows, scree, and rock crevices at moderate to high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bog saxifrage (Micranthes oregana)
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Alberta, Montana, Idaho, Nevada, and Colorado.
Habitat: Bogs, streambanks and wet meadows at mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Brook saxifrage (Micranthes odontoloma)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Streambanks, lake shores and wet meadows from low elevations in the mountains to the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Clayton's saxifrage (Micranthes fragosa)
Distribution: East of Cascades in Washington, south to Oregon and east to Idaho.
Habitat: Wet slopes and cliffs, often near watercourses.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Columbia saxifrage (Micranthes nidifica)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Prairies and wet banks to subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Columbian saxifrage (Micranthes integrifolia)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Prairies, grassy slopes and vernally moist areas, sea level to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dotted saxifrage (Micranthes nelsoniana)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Nunavut and Alberta.
Habitat: Montane wet areas and streambanks from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Gorman's saxifrage (Micranthes gormanii)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in the Lower Columbia River Gorge; southwestern Washington to adjacent Oregon.
Habitat: Wet rocky ledges and slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Idaho saxifrage (Micranthes idahoensis)
Distribution: Washington and Oregon, east to Montana and Idaho.
Habitat: Exposed areas, ledges, and open slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Leatherleaf saxifrage (Leptarrhena pyrolifolia)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, including the Olympic Mountains; Alaska to Oregon, east to Northwest Territory, Alberta, and Montana.
Habitat: Streambanks, seeps and wet meadows, middle to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lyall's saxifrage (Micranthes lyallii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; Alaska to Washington, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Wet, gravelly meadows and along streams and ponds at high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Matted saxifrage (Saxifraga austromontana)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to northeast Oregon, east to Montana, and south in Rocky Mountains to New Mexico; circumboreal.
Habitat: Cliff crevices, talus and scree slopes, mid- to high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Matted saxifrage (Saxifraga vespertina)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; western Washington to Oregon.
Habitat: Rocky outcroppings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Merten's saxifrage (Saxifraga mertensiana)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Wet ledges, shaded seeps on rock faces, and gravelly stream banks from sea level to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mountain saxifrage (Micranthes occidentalis)
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska south to Oregon and Nevada, east to Saskatachewan and south to New Mexico.
Habitat: Dry to wet open areas, rock crevices, meadows, and streambanks from moderate to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Nodding saxifrage (Saxifraga cernua)
Distribution: Known only east of the Cascades crest in north-central Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and across northern Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Among rocks in alpine areas, often where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Nuttall's saxifrage (Cascadia nuttallii)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest on the Olympic Peninsula and south in Washington; Washington south along the coast to southwestern Oregon.
Habitat: Wet banks and near waterfalls, usually growing in moss, from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Olympic saxifrage (Micranthes tischii)
Distribution: Endemic to Washington, where known from the Olympic Mountains and Washington Pass in Okanogan County.
Habitat: Forested ledges and rock crevices where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Oregon saxifrage (Micranthes oregana)
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Alberta, Montana, Idaho, Nevada, and Colorado.
Habitat: Bogs, streambanks and wet meadows at mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Purple saxifrage (Saxifraga oppositifolia)
Distribution: In the Olympic and Cascade mountains of Washington; Alaska south to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains; across northern Canada and northeastern U.S.
Habitat: Alpine slopes and rocky outcroppings
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pygmy saxifrage (Saxifraga hyperborea)
Distribution: In the Olympic and Cascade mountains of Washington; Alaska south to California, throughout the Rocky Mountains, across northern Canada to the Maritime Provinces.
Habitat: Alpine tundra, often where moist with rocky outcroppings, crevices, and snowmelt.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Red-stemmed saxifrage (Micranthes lyallii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; Alaska to Washington, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Wet, gravelly meadows and along streams and ponds at high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Redwool saxifrage (Micranthes occidentalis)
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska south to Oregon and Nevada, east to Saskatachewan and south to New Mexico.
Habitat: Dry to wet open areas, rock crevices, meadows, and streambanks from moderate to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rue-leaved saxifrage (Saxifraga tridactylites)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to Oregon.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Rusty saxifrage (Micranthes ferruginea)
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades and Olympic Mountains, and in the mountains of northeastern in Washington; Alaska to south California, east to Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Open, moist, often rocky areas, from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rusty-hair saxifrage (Micranthes rufidula)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Wet open areas, ledges, rock outcroppings from moderate to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: February-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spotted saxifrage (Saxifraga austromontana)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to northeast Oregon, east to Montana, and south in Rocky Mountains to New Mexico; circumboreal.
Habitat: Cliff crevices, talus and scree slopes, mid- to high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spotted saxifrage (Saxifraga vespertina)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; western Washington to Oregon.
Habitat: Rocky outcroppings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Strawberry saxifrage (Saxifragopsis fragarioides)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the Wenatchee Mountains in Washington, where disjunct; southwestern Oregon to adjacent California.
Habitat: Rock outcrops and talus slopes at middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Streambank saxifrage (Micranthes odontoloma)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Streambanks, lake shores and wet meadows from low elevations in the mountains to the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Swamp saxifrage (Micranthes integrifolia)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Prairies, grassy slopes and vernally moist areas, sea level to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Swamp saxifrage (Micranthes nidifica)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Prairies and wet banks to subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tiny swamp saxifrage (Micranthes apetala)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Oregon, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Vernally moist meadows at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tolmie's alpine saxifrage (Micranthes tolmiei)
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic and Cascade mountains in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to Idaho, Montana, Nevada and Utah.
Habitat: Mountain meadows, scree, and rock crevices at moderate to high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tolmie's saxifrage (Micranthes tolmiei)
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic and Cascade mountains in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to Idaho, Montana, Nevada and Utah.
Habitat: Mountain meadows, scree, and rock crevices at moderate to high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tufted alpine saxifrage (Saxifraga cespitosa)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to south California, east to the Rocky Mountains; east across Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Ledges, gravelly ridges and scree, near sea level to alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tufted saxifrage (Saxifraga cespitosa)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to south California, east to the Rocky Mountains; east across Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Ledges, gravelly ridges and scree, near sea level to alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Twinflowered saxifrage (Saxifraga oppositifolia)
Distribution: In the Olympic and Cascade mountains of Washington; Alaska south to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains; across northern Canada and northeastern U.S.
Habitat: Alpine slopes and rocky outcroppings
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wedge-leaf saxifrage (Saxifraga adscendens)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in northern Washington and possibly in the Olympic Mountains; Alaska to Nevada, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Glacial moraines and alpine gravelly meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western saxifrage (Micranthes occidentalis)
Distribution: Both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska south to Oregon and Nevada, east to Saskatachewan and south to New Mexico.
Habitat: Dry to wet open areas, rock crevices, meadows, and streambanks from moderate to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western swamp saxifrage (Micranthes apetala)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Oregon, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Vernally moist meadows at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Whole-leaf saxifrage (Micranthes integrifolia)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Prairies, grassy slopes and vernally moist areas, sea level to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Woodland saxifrage (Saxifraga mertensiana)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Wet ledges, shaded seeps on rock faces, and gravelly stream banks from sea level to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Scalepod (Idahoa scapigera)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Idaho, and Nevada.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-April
Growth Duration: Annual
Scent-bottle (Platanthera dilatata)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest through the mountainous and forested areas of Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; also from the Great Lakes region east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet meadows, forest openings, and streambanks from low elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Scheuchzeria (Scheuchzeria palustris)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern North America.
Habitat: In bogs or on lake margins.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Blue scorpion-grass (Myosotis stricta)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Balds, prairies, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed, open moist to dry places.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Early scorpion-grass (Myosotis verna)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington British Columbia to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open, wet to dry places in foothills and lowlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Field scorpion-grass (Myosotis arvensis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to Oregon, east across the northern half of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and forest openings, typically associated with disturbance.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Spring scorpion-grass (Myosotis verna)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington British Columbia to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open, wet to dry places in foothills and lowlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Yellow and blue scorpiongrass (Myosotis discolor)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Nevada; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other dry to moist open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Bolander's scorpion-weed (Phacelia bolanderi)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland southwestern Washington; Coos Bay, Oregon south along the coast to Sonoma County, California.
Habitat: Mostly on open, often unstable slopes at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dwarf scorpion-weed (Phacelia minutissima)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Kittitas County in Washington; central Washington to northeastern Nevada, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Meadows and forest openings at middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Four-part yellow scorpion-weed (Phacelia tetramera)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central Washington; central Washington to California, east to Idaho, Wyoming and Utah.
Habitat: Alkaline flats and washes at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Franklin's scorpion-weed (Phacelia franklinii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; Yukon to northeastern Washington, east to western Montana and Wyoming, further east to the Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Talus and open areas at middle elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Glandular-hair scorpion-weed (Phacelia glandulifera)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho, Nevada, Utah, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Open areas in sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June
Growth Duration: Annual
Sticky scorpion-weed (Phacelia lenta)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where endemic to Chelan and Douglas counties.
Habitat: Open rocky habitats, talus, rocky outcrops.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tall scorpion-weed (Phacelia procera)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, also in the Blue Mountains of northeast Oregon and east to adjacent west-central Idaho.
Habitat: Meadows, forest openings and edge, and lightly wooded slopes at middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Thread-leaf scorpion-weed (Phacelia linearis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Common in dry, open places in the foothills and plains to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Nodding scorzonella (Microseris nutans)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Slopes, meadows, flats, and forest openings,often in somewhat moist places, from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Common scouring rush (Equisetum hyemale)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist to wet areas, lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dwarf scouring rush (Equisetum scirpoides)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; Alaska to Washington, east across the northern U.S.and Canada to the Atlantic Coast; circumboreal.
Habitat: Moist, swampy places, especially in coniferous forests.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Ferriss's scouring rush (Equisetum ×ferrissii)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Dry to wet, often disturbed areas, including gravelly roadsides.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern scouring rush (Equisetum variegatum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east across southern Canada and the northern third of the United States to the Atlantic Coast; circumboreal.
Habitat: Wet places, from sea level to alpine.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Smooth scouring rush (Equisetum laevigatum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washngton; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Wet places, including meadows and streambanks, at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Scrambled eggs (Corydalis aurea)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains, Great Lakes region and northeastern North America.
Habitat: In varied habitats, from moist to dry and well-drained soil.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Scratchgrass (Muhlenbergia asperifolia)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Dry to moist alkaline places.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Forest scurf-pea (Rupertia physodes)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, disjunct in northeastern Oregon and adjacent Idaho.
Habitat: Prairie and forest edges at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lance-leaf scurfpea (Ladeania lanceolata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Sagebrush steppe habitat in dry areas, often where sandy.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June (September-October)
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lemon scurf-pea (Ladeania lanceolata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Sagebrush steppe habitat in dry areas, often where sandy.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June (September-October)
Growth Duration: Perennial
Danish scurvy-grass (Cochlearia groenlandica)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest on the outer coast and along the Salish Sea in Washington; Alaska to California, east across northern Canada to the Atlantic Coast and Greenland.
Habitat: Along immediate coast in tidal flats, maritime rocky beaches, dunes, lagoons, stream banks, and peat hammocks,
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Scurvy-grass (Cochlearia groenlandica)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest on the outer coast and along the Salish Sea in Washington; Alaska to California, east across northern Canada to the Atlantic Coast and Greenland.
Habitat: Along immediate coast in tidal flats, maritime rocky beaches, dunes, lagoons, stream banks, and peat hammocks,
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Sea-blush (Plectritis congesta)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Open, vernally moist balds, prairies, meadows and slopes, from sea level to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Sea-pink (Armeria maritima)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington, chiefly in the coastal counties; Alaska to California, east across Canada to northeastern North America; Greenland and Europe.
Habitat: Along beaches, coastal bluffs and balds, occasionally inland in prairies.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
American sea-rocket (Cakile edentula)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in coastal counties in Washington; Alaska to California along the coast, native to the Great Lakes region and coastal eastern North America.
Habitat: Along marine water shorelines in sand or gravel.
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
European sea-rocket (Cakile maritima)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in coastal counties in Washington; British Columbia to California along the coast, also along the Chesapeake Bay on the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Along marine water shorelines in sand or gravel.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Sea-rocket (Cakile maritima)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in coastal counties in Washington; British Columbia to California along the coast, also along the Chesapeake Bay on the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Along marine water shorelines in sand or gravel.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Sea-watch (Angelica lucida)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington in the coastal counties; Alaska to California, also in eastern North America; Far East Russia.
Habitat: Coastal bluffs, beaches, and estuaries.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Common seablite (Suaeda calceoliformis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains, and also along the coast of eastern North America.
Habitat: Open, moist to wet areas, typically where saline.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Horned seablite (Suaeda calceoliformis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains, and also along the coast of eastern North America.
Habitat: Open, moist to wet areas, typically where saline.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Slender seablite (Suaeda occidentalis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to California and Nevada, east to Wyoming and Utah.
Habitat: Saline or alkaline flats and marshes in sagebrush area.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Seawrack (Zostera marina)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington\'s coastal counties; Alaska to California along the coast; also on the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Sub-tidal area.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Abrupt-beaked sedge (Carex abrupta)
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades and west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Springs, moist meadows, and open forest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Alpine nerve sedge (Carex neurophora)
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades Range and Olympic Mountains in Washington; Washington to California, east to Montana and Colorado.
Habitat: Alpine wet meadows, springs, stream banks, peatlands
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Analogue sedge (Carex simulata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central and southern Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Wet meadows, shores, marshes, peatlands, and springs, often where limy or alkaline.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Awl-fruited sedge (Carex stipata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet ground, lowlands (especially west of the Cascades) to mid-elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Awned sedge (Carex atherodes)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America except in the southeastern U.S.; circumboreal.
Habitat: Swales, shores, sometimes in water up to 0.7 m deep.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Beaked sedge (Carex utriculata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Shores, often in shallow water, swamps, marshes, peatlands, and wet meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bearded sedge (Carex comosa)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California; scattered in the central U.S. and eastern North America.
Habitat: Marshes and wet meadows from the lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bebb's sedge (Carex bebbii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Riparian zones, wet meadows, shores, and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Big inflated sedge (Carex exsiccata)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Swales, wet meadows, shores, seasonal pools, and peatlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Big-leaf sedge (Carex amplifolia)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Swamps, bogs and other wet places, lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bighead sedge (Carex macrocephala)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the coast in Washington; Alaska to Oregon; northern Pacific Rim.
Habitat: Sandy saltwater beaches and dunes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Black alpine sedge (Carex nigricans)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Alpine and subalpine moist meadows, snowmelt channels, depressions, talus, and shores.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Black bog sedge (Carex pluriflora)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to northwestern Washington.
Habitat: Peatlands, wet meadows, and shores.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Black-and-white-scaled sedge (Carex albonigra)
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascade and Olympic mountains of Washington; Alaska to Washington, east to and south in the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Alpine areas, high elevation talus and scree.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Black-scale sedge (Carex atrosquama)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Northwest Territories, Alberta, Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Colorado.
Habitat: Moist to dry subalpine and alpine meadows, fellfields, rocky slopes, swales, and shores.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Blunt sedge (Carex obtusata)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in the Olympic Mountains in Washington; Alaska to Washington, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Subalpine and alpine dry or moist meadows, fellfields, and scree.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bolander's sedge (Carex bolanderi)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Rocky Mountains, also in Mexico.
Habitat: Springs, moist slopes, riparian forests, shores, upper margins of salt marshes, and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Boreal bog sedge (Carex magellanica)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; Alaska to Washington, east to Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Colorado, also to the Great Lakes region and eastern North America; circumboreal; also in South America.
Habitat: Peatlands, swamps, wet meadows, and lakeshores.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Brewer's sedge (Carex breweri)
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades Mountains from Mt. Adams and south in Washington; south-central Washington to California and Nevada.
Habitat: Volcanic ash, pumice, scree, talus, rocky slopes in the subalpine and alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bristle-leaf sedge (Isolepis setacea)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Lowland shores and ditches.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia and Africa
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bristle-leaved sedge (Carex eburnea)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; Alaska to Washington and Montana, east across Canada to the Atlantic Coast, also east from the northern Great Plains in the U.S. to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Gravelly shores, swamps, moist banks, moist forest, limy outcrops and talus.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bristly sedge (Carex comosa)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California; scattered in the central U.S. and eastern North America.
Habitat: Marshes and wet meadows from the lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Brown bog sedge (Carex buxbaumii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Peatlands, wet meadows, marshes, shores; and circumboreal.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Brown sedge (Carex brunnescens)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Among dry boulders and talus, moist to wet meadows, streambanks, shores, wet thickets
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Buxbaum's sedge (Carex buxbaumii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Peatlands, wet meadows, marshes, shores; and circumboreal.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
California sedge (Carex californica)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, disjunct in northern Idaho.
Habitat: Dry meadows, openings, clearings, peatlands, brushy slopes, and roadsides.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Capitate sedge (Carex capitata)
Distribution: Occurring in northwestern and north-central Washington near the Canadian border; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains in the U.S. and east across Canada to the Atlantic Coast; circumboreal.
Habitat: Subalpine and alpine eatlands, shores, and wet meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cloud sedge (Carex haydeniana)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, Montana, and Colorado.
Habitat: Subalpine and alpine ridges, rocky slopes, talus and scree, snowmelt areas and stream banks, often in wetter sites in our more eastern mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Clustered field sedge (Carex praegracilis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains; also introduced from Wisconsin to Missouri, east to the Atlantic.
Habitat: Wet to seasonally moist meadows, shores, springs, vernal pools, ditches, and dredgings, tolerant of alkali or road salt.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Coiled sedge (Carex circinata)
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic Mountains in Washington; Alaska to Washington
Habitat: Talus, cliffs, subalpine and alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Columbia sedge (Carex aperta)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; central British Columbia to southern Oregon, east to Alberta, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Wet meadows, peatlands, floodplains, shores, and marshes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Common woolly sedge (Scirpus atrocinctus)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington, where nown only from Whatcom County; British Columbia to Washington, east across the northern half of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet, low ground.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Constance's sedge (Carex davyi)
Distribution: Known historically (1909) from the Mt. Adams area; otherwise Lane County, Oregon to California.
Habitat: Often sparse montane meadows and slopes, occasional along seasonal runoff channels.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cordilleran sedge (Carex cordillerana)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Alberta, Montana, and Utah.
Habitat: Shaded thickets, open forest, rocky slopes, often near streams, limy or not.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cordroot sedge (Carex chordorrhiza)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east across the northern U.S. and Canda to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Peatlands, shores, and marshes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Crawe's sedge (Carex crawei)
Distribution: Known historically (1841) from northeastern Washington; southeastern British Columbia to northeastern Washington, east to Montana and Utah, east to Newfoundland and Georgia.
Habitat: lLmy gravel or ledges, wet meadows, peatlands, and marly shores.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Crawford's sedge (Carex crawfordii)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington, but also along the coast where introduced in ditches, irrigation ponds and cranberry farms. Alaska to Oregon, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Montane and inland, on shores, peatlands, and moist to wet meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Creeping sedge (Carex chordorrhiza)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east across the northern U.S. and Canda to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Peatlands, shores, and marshes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cusick's sedge (Carex cusickii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Utah, and Nevada.
Habitat: Wetlands, lake and pond edges, and other wet areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Davy's sedge (Carex davyi)
Distribution: Known historically (1909) from the Mt. Adams area; otherwise Lane County, Oregon to California.
Habitat: Often sparse montane meadows and slopes, occasional along seasonal runoff channels.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Delicate sedge (Carex leptalea)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet areas, both open and forested, from lowlands to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dense sedge (Carex densa)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Seasonally moist meadows, stream banks, wet prairie, springs, open riparian forest, and ditches at low elevation.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dewey's sedge (Carex deweyana)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; Alaska to northeastern Washington, east to Northwest Territory and south through Montana to Colorado, further eastward to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open or riparian forest, swamps, cliffs, damp thickets, and mesic meadow edges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Different-veined sedge (Carex heteroneura)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest along the Canadian border in Washington British Columbia to California, east to Sasketchewan and the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist to wet sites in the subalpine and alpine zones.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Douglas's sedge (Carex douglasii)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; central British Columbia to California, east to central North America.
Habitat: Dry to wet soils in sagebrush grasslands, riparian zones, and forest margins.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dry-spike sedge (Carex siccata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory and Northwest Territory to Washington, also in the southern Rocky Mountains, east across Canada to the Great Lakes region, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Dry grassland, savanna, and open forest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Elk sedge (Carex geyeri)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Grassy slopes, meadows, and forest openings from the sagebrush foothills to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Engelmann's sedge (Carex engelmannii)
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic Mountains and in the Cascades Mountains south to Mt. Adams in Washington; southern British Columbia to Mt. Adams in Washington, east to Idaho, Montana, and Colorado.
Habitat: Dry or moist fellfields, rocky slopes, talus and scree, cliffs and meadows in the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
European woodland sedge (Carex sylvatica)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to western Washington.
Habitat: Mesic or moist forest, paths, disturbed meadows, and ditches.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Growth Duration: Perennial
Falkland Islands sedge (Carex macloviana)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; Alaska to Washington, east to Alberta, Montana, and Colorado; circumboreal, also in South America.
Habitat: Mountain lake and river shores, moist meadows and slopes, bogs, and other wet areas, including disturbed areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
False golden sedge (Carex hassei)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Wet or moist meadows, springs, peatlands, shores, and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Few-flowered sedge (Carex pauciflora)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washington, east across Canada to northeastern North America; circumpolar.
Habitat: Sphagnum bogs and acidic peatlands, generally at low to moderate elevations in our area.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Foetid sedge (Carex vernacula)
Habitat: Moist to wet slopes, snowmelt basins, springs, and shores in the subalpine to alpine
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Foothill sedge (Carex tumulicola)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Mesic to seasonally wet meadows, open for, sea bluffs, grassy slopes, and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Fox sedge (Carex vulpinoidea)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southern British Columbia to Oregon, east to the Atlantic Coast; introduced in California and Nevada.
Habitat: Marshes and standing water at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Fragile-sheath sedge (Carex fracta)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Open forest, riparian zones, springs, moist or dry roadsides, and ditches, often in partial shade.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Geyer's sedge (Carex geyeri)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Grassy slopes, meadows, and forest openings from the sagebrush foothills to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Golden sedge (Carex aurea)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Moist or wet places from the lowlands to near timberline in the mountains
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Grassy-slope arctic sedge (Carex anthoxanthea)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; Alaska to Washington.
Habitat: Bogs and wet meadows from low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Green sedge (Carex viridula)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Shores, marshes, peatlands, dunes, hollows, hot springs, often where limy, or saline soils.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Green-fruited sedge (Carex interrupta)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to southwestern Oregon.
Habitat: Sand bars, riverbanks, occasionally wet meadows, and reservoir shores.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Green-sheath sedge (Carex feta)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Marshes and wet meadows from the lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hair sedge (Carex capillaris)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America; circumboreal.
Habitat: Shores, peatlands, wet meadows, springs, wet talus, often where limy.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Halfchaff sedge (Lipocarpha aristulata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central and south-central Washington; Washington to California, in the southern Rocky Mountains, and in the central U.S.
Habitat: sandy soils of shorelines, stream banks, ponds, and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Hall's sedge (Carex halliana)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in southern Washington; southern Washington to California.
Habitat: Dry meadows, pumice, and open forest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hare sedge (Carex leporina)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, and introduced in eastern North America.
Habitat: Seasonally wet prairies, swales, shores, marshes, ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hayden's sedge (Carex haydeniana)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, Montana, and Colorado.
Habitat: Subalpine and alpine ridges, rocky slopes, talus and scree, snowmelt areas and stream banks, often in wetter sites in our more eastern mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Henderson's sedge (Carex hendersonii)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California, disjunct in northern Idaho.
Habitat: Boggy areas and wet woods, low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hood's sedge (Carex hoodii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Sasketchewan, South Dakota, and Colorado.
Habitat: Dry or mesic meadows, rocky slopes, scree, talus, open forest, sagebrush desert, and recent burns.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Inflated sedge (Carex utriculata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Shores, often in shallow water, swamps, marshes, peatlands, and wet meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Inflated sedge (Carex vesicaria)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Swales, wet meadows, shores, seasonal pools, and peatlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Inland sedge (Carex interior)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet meadows, peatlands, swampy forests, and shores, often where limy.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Interrupted sedge (Carex interrupta)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to southwestern Oregon.
Habitat: Sand bars, riverbanks, occasionally wet meadows, and reservoir shores.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Japanese sedge (Carex kobomugi)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in southwestern Washington; known historically from Portland, Oregon; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Coastal dunes.
Origin: Introduced from eastern Asia.
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Jelly bean sedge (Carex leptalea)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet areas, both open and forested, from lowlands to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Jones' sedge (Carex jonesii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; northern Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Wet meadows, shores, springs, stream banks, and peatlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Kellogg's sedge (Carex kelloggii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Shores, riparian zones, wet meadows, marshes, and peatlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lake sedge (Carex lacustris)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; Alberta to Washington, east across the northern half of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wetland, swamps, and marshes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lake Tahoe sedge (Carex tahoensis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east to Alberta, Montana, and Colorado.
Habitat: Generally subalpine and alpine rocky slopes, ridges, talus and scree, and dry meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lakeshore sedge (Carex kelloggii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Shores, riparian zones, wet meadows, marshes, and peatlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Leers's sedge (Carex divulsa)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington in lowland areas; also known in Oregon, California and eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas at low elevation, where escaping from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lesser panicled sedge (Carex diandra)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Peatlands, shores, springs, swamps, sometimes in shallow water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lesser tussock sedge (Carex diandra)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Peatlands, shores, springs, swamps, sometimes in shallow water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Liddon's sedge (Carex petasata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Northwest Territory, Saskatoon, and the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Dry to moist slopes and meadows, riparian areas, open forest, often among sagebrush.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Limestone sedge (Carex saxatilis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washington, east across the northern U.S. and Canada to northeastern North America; circumboreal.
Habitat: Peatlands, shores, streams, and wet meadows, sometimes in shallow water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Long's sedge (Carex longii)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Ditches, cranberry fields, shores, and wet ledges.
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America.
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Long-awn sedge (Carex macrochaeta)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon.
Habitat: Wet cliffs and openings, near beaches, stream banks, scree, and heaths.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Long-stolon sedge (Carex inops)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Forest openings, open slopes, and near streams in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Long-style sedge (Carex stylosa)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washington, also in eastern Canada and Greenland.
Habitat: Peatlands, marshes, moist or wet meadows, shores.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lyngbye's sedge (Carex lyngbyei)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across Canada to Greenland and Europe.
Habitat: Coastal marshes and tidal flats.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Many-headed sedge (Carex sychnocephala)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across the northern U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast; disjunct in Colorado.
Habitat: Moist or wet meadows, seasonal wetlands, receding shores, and sandy sloughs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mertens' sedge (Carex mertensii)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta and western Montana.
Habitat: Wet, open or shaded areas from the lowlands to near timberline
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Montana sedge (Carex media)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Casades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon and Montana, east across Canada to the Great Lakes region and northeastern North America; circumboreal.
Habitat: Wet meadows, shores, springs, wet cliffs, peatlands, and swamps.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mountain hare sedge (Carex phaeocephala)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Montana, and Colorado.
Habitat: Subalpine and alpine talus, rocky slopes, and dry meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mountain mat sedge (Carex deflexa)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado, east across Canada to the Great Lakes region and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Montane to alpine open forest and meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mountain sedge (Carex scopulorum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Montana and subalpine wet meadows, marshes, shores, stream banks, and peatlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mt. Shasta sedge (Carex straminiformis)
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades of southern Washington; southern Washington to California, east to Idaho and Utah.
Habitat: Montane gravel, sand, ash, or pumice meadows, talus, and dry open forest, often near or above timberline.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mud sedge (Carex limosa)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Utah, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Peatlands, shores.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Narrow-leaved sedge (Carex angustata)
Distribution: Occuring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Wet meadows in riparian zones from low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Nebraska sedge (Carex nebrascensis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Wet meadows and other wet areas, often in alkaline areas, lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern beaked sedge (Carex rostrata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; Alaska to northern Washington, east to Montana, the Great Lakes region, and Newfoundland.
Habitat: Sphagnum bogs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern clustered sedge (Carex arcta)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon to California, east to Alberta and Montana; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Wet forest and thickets, marshes, peatlands, shores, and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern meadow sedge (Carex praticola)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the northern Great Plains, then scattered further east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Seasonally damp to mesic meadows, open forest, riparian areas, springs, and disturbed ground at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northwest Territory sedge (Carex utriculata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Shores, often in shallow water, swamps, marshes, peatlands, and wet meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northwestern sedge (Carex concinnoides)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central British Columbia to California.
Habitat: In and about conifer woodlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
One-sided sedge (Carex unilateralis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Wet prairie remnants, and swales.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Oval broom sedge (Carex leporina)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, and introduced in eastern North America.
Habitat: Seasonally wet prairies, swales, shores, marshes, ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Oval sedge (Carex leporina)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, and introduced in eastern North America.
Habitat: Seasonally wet prairies, swales, shores, marshes, ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Oxbow sedge (Carex vesicaria)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Swales, wet meadows, shores, seasonal pools, and peatlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pacific bog sedge (Kobresia myosuroides)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, east across Canada to the Atlantic Coast; circumboreal.
Habitat: Talus, dry or somewhat moist fellfields, subalpine to alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pale green sedge (Carex pallescens)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to southwestern Washington, east to northern Idaho and western Montana.
Habitat: Wet meadows, ditches, pastures, and stream banks.
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America and Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pale sedge (Carex livida)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Montana, Colorado, and eastern North America; also in South America; circumpolar.
Habitat: Peatlands, stream banks, and wet open forests from lowlands to montane.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Parry's sedge (Carex parryana)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in north-central Washington; Alaska to Washington, Idaho, and Nevada, east to the Rocky Mountains, east across Canada to Ontario.
Habitat: Alkaline shores, mudflats, alluvium, and wet meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pendulous sedge (Carex pendula)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Forest edge and openings, riparian zones, and other moist areas at low elevations, often where disturbed.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Plains oval sedge (Carex brevior)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington in eastern Washington; southern British Columbia to eastern Washington, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Lowland riparian zones, sloughs, swales, moist to dry meadows and open forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Poor sedge (Carex magellanica)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; Alaska to Washington, east to Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Colorado, also to the Great Lakes region and eastern North America; circumboreal; also in South America.
Habitat: Peatlands, swamps, wet meadows, and lakeshores.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Porcupine sedge (Carex hystericina)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Shores, swales, marshes, springs, and wet meadows;
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Presl's sedge (Carex preslii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Open, dry to seasonally dry areas from montane to alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pumpkin sedge (Carex aurea)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Moist or wet places from the lowlands to near timberline in the mountains
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Quill sedge (Carex tenera)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to northeastern Washington, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Riparian zones, wet meadows, marshy shores, damp thickets, and swamps.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Raynolds' sedge (Carex raynoldsii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Subalpine and alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Retrorse sedge (Carex retrorsa)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Marshes, shores, swamps, floodplains, wet meadows, and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Riverbank sedge (Carex stenoptila)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in north-central Washington; Washington to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Moist to dry rocky slopes and meadows, open forest, stream banks, and subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rope-root sedge (Carex chordorrhiza)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east across the northern U.S. and Canda to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Peatlands, shores, and marshes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Ross' sedge (Carex rossii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Open forest, meadows, burns, ledges, from lowland to alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Russet sedge (Carex saxatilis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washington, east across the northern U.S. and Canada to northeastern North America; circumboreal.
Habitat: Peatlands, shores, streams, and wet meadows, sometimes in shallow water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rusty sedge (Carex subfusca)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho, Utah, and New Mexico.
Habitat: Wet meadows, riparian zones, shores, and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sand sedge (Carex pansa)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington along coastal areas; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Dunes, meadows, and other open areas along the coast.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sawbeak sedge (Carex stipata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet ground, lowlands (especially west of the Cascades) to mid-elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Scandinavian sedge (Carex media)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Casades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon and Montana, east across Canada to the Great Lakes region and northeastern North America; circumboreal.
Habitat: Wet meadows, shores, springs, wet cliffs, peatlands, and swamps.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sheldon's sedge (Carex sheldonii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southeastern Washington; southeastern Washington to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Swales, slow creeks, wet meadows, and openings in riparian forest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Short-beaked sedge (Carex brevior)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington in eastern Washington; southern British Columbia to eastern Washington, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Lowland riparian zones, sloughs, swales, moist to dry meadows and open forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Short-leaf sedge (Carex disperma)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America; circumboreal.
Habitat: Moist riparian forests, swamps, peatlands, wet meadows, and springs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Short-scaled sedge (Carex leptopoda)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Lowland mesic or damp forest, riparian zones, swamps, partly shaded swales or springs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Short-stemmed sedge (Carex zikae)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Strictly coastal in dunes and headlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Showy sedge (Carex spectabilis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Montana, Wyoming, and Utah.
Habitat: Damp meadows and other wet places, from middle to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sierra hare sedge (Carex leporinella)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Utah.
Habitat: Seasonally moist montane to alpine to wet meadows, marshes, shores, snowmelt basins, and peatlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Silvery sedge (Carex canescens)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Wet meadows, peatlands, swamps, shores, springs, and wet thickets.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Single-spike sedge (Carex scirpoidea)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Meadows, peatlands, wet cliffs, shores, high montane snowmelt meadows, fellfields, dry ridges, and shores, sometimes where limy, lowland to alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Slender sedge (Carex tenera)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to northeastern Washington, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Riparian zones, wet meadows, marshy shores, damp thickets, and swamps.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Slender-beak sedge (Carex athrostachya)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Wet meadows, drying shores, swales, springs, damp disturbed ground, and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Slenderfoot sedge (Carex leptopoda)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Lowland mesic or damp forest, riparian zones, swamps, partly shaded swales or springs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Slough sedge (Carex obnupta)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; northern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Sloughs, shores, wet meadows, riparian forest and ditches, in either sun or shade.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Small-bracted sedge (Carex subbracteata)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; introduced from southwestern British Columbia to Lincoln County, Oregon; native from Coos County Oregon to California.
Habitat: Seasonally wet meadows and ditches.
Origin: Introduced from southern Oregon
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Small-flowered halfchaff sedge (Lipocarpha micrantha)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest and along the lower Columbia River in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across the southern U.S.to the Great Plains and eastern North America.
Habitat: Drying sand on rivers and lakes, mudflats, vernal pools.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Small-head sedge (Carex illota)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, Montana, and Colorado.
Habitat: Montane to alpine wet meadows, peatlands, marshes, shores, and springs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Small-winged sedge (Carex microptera)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to Mexico, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist to dry meadows and streambanks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Smoky Mountain sedge (Carex proposita)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; also in Idaho and California.
Habitat: Alpine dry, rocky slopes and ridges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June- August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Smooth-beaked sedge (Carex integra)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in southern Washington; southern Washington to California.
Habitat: Dry to mesic montane meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Smooth-fruited sedge (Carex heteroneura)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest along the Canadian border in Washington British Columbia to California, east to Sasketchewan and the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist to wet sites in the subalpine and alpine zones.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Smooth-stemmed sedge (Carex laeviculmis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Wet meadows, wet forest, springs, peatlands, shores, and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sparse-flower sedge (Carex tenuiflora)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; Alaska to northern Washington, east across the northern U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast; circumboreal.
Habitat: Peatlands and wet meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spikenard sedge (Carex nardina)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon and Nevada, east to the Rocky Mountains, and east across northern Canada to eastern North America; circumpolar.
Habitat: Alpine rocky outcroppings, slopes, and ridges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spring sedge (Carex luzulina)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Peatlands, stream banks, springs, and shores.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Star sedge (Carex echinata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern North America; circumboreal.
Habitat: Swamps, bogs and other wet places, from the lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Starry sedge (Carex pachystachya)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Saskatoon and Colorado.
Habitat: Wet meadows, springs, shores, peatlands, marsh margins, and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Teacher's sedge (Carex praeceptorum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado.
Habitat: Wet meadows, springs, shores, and peatlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tetrastigmatic sedge (Carex concinnoides)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central British Columbia to California.
Habitat: In and about conifer woodlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Thick-headed sedge (Carex pachystachya)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Saskatoon and Colorado.
Habitat: Wet meadows, springs, shores, peatlands, marsh margins, and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Thread-leaved sedge (Carex filifolia)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Lowland to alpine, formerly common in dry meadows of Palouse and sagebrush.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Three-way sedge (Dulichium arundinaceum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet meadows, marshes, and shores of ponds and lakes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Timberline sedge (Carex micropoda)
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades Range and Olympic Mountains in Washington; Alaska to northeastern Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Subalpine and alpine dry or moist, rocky meadows and slopes, ledges, talus, and scree.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Torrent sedge (Carex nudata)
Distribution: Occurring along the Cascades crest in south-central Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Below high water mark on cobble and ledges in rocky streambeds, occasional in irrigation canals.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tribulation sedge (Carex tribuloides)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; southwestern British Columbia to western Oregon; native to central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Ditches, marshes, wet meadows, wet thickets, receding shorelines, and freshwater intertidal shores.
Origin: Introduced from central and eastern North America
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Valley sedge (Carex vallicola)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Dry to mesic grassy slopes, open forest, riparian zones, sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Walking sedge (Eleocharis rostellata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Shores, wet meadows, seeps, hot springs, fens, often where alkaline.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Water sedge (Carex aquatilis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, east to the Great Lakes and the northeastern U.S.
Habitat: Standing water or saturated soil, foothills to near timberline in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Weak-veined sedge (Carex infirminervia)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, Montana, and Colorado.
Habitat: Springs, mesic slopes, shores, riparian forests, and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western halfchaff sedge (Lipocarpha occidentalis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in south-central Washington, where disjunct; south-central Oregon to California.
Habitat: Wet low ground.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Wheat sedge (Carex atherodes)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America except in the southeastern U.S.; circumboreal.
Habitat: Swales, shores, sometimes in water up to 0.7 m deep.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wiregrass sedge (Carex lasiocarpa)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Utah, the Great Plains of Canada, and from the Great Lakes region to northeastern North America; circumboreal.
Habitat: Wetlands, riparian zones, and other wet areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Woodrush sedge (Carex luzulina)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Peatlands, stream banks, springs, and shores.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Woolly sedge (Carex pellita)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet to dry meadows from low elevations to montane.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Yellow bog sedge (Carex gynocrates)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in north-central Washington;
Habitat: Peatlands, moist forest, wet meadows, springs, swamps, mossy stream banks, talus, and often limy.
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Yellow sedge (Carex flava)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washington, east across the northern U.S. and Canada to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Wet meadows, marshes, shores, peatlands, and wet thickets, often where limy.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Yellow-flowered sedge (Carex anthoxanthea)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; Alaska to Washington.
Habitat: Bogs and wet meadows from low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Yellow-green sedge (Carex flava)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washington, east across the northern U.S. and Canada to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Wet meadows, marshes, shores, peatlands, and wet thickets, often where limy.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Zika's sedge (Carex zikae)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Strictly coastal in dunes and headlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bushy seablite seepweed (Suaeda nigra)
Distribution: Occurring in Klickitat County in Washington; south-central Washington to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Alkaline soils in sagebrush flats and valleys.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Seepweed (Suaeda nigra)
Distribution: Occurring in Klickitat County in Washington; south-central Washington to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Alkaline soils in sagebrush flats and valleys.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Western seepweed (Suaeda occidentalis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to California and Nevada, east to Wyoming and Utah.
Habitat: Saline or alkaline flats and marshes in sagebrush area.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Elegant sego-lily (Calochortus elegans)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Oregon and northern California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Grassy hillsides and open coniferous forests, middle to high elvations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Long-bearded sego-lily (Calochortus longebarbatus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Yakima and Klickitat counties in Washington; south-central Washington to northern California.
Habitat: Open meadows, low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Self-heal (Prunella vulgaris)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist areas, sea level to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Both native and introduced
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Nodding semaphore grass (Pleuropogon refractus)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Bogs, stream banks, swampy meadows,and moist, shaded woods, from near sea level toabout 5000 feet elevation in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bladder senna (Colutea arborescens)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east across the southwest to the Great Plains; northeastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed open areas ncluding wastelots, roadsides, and fields.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Serpent-grass (Bistorta vivipara)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; Alaska to Oregon and Nevada, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Damp areas, shady woods, meadows and streambanks at mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lyall's serpentweed (Tonestus lyallii)
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympics and Cascades mountains in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Mountain meadows and rocky slopes, subalpine and alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Swedish service-tree (Sorbus hybrida)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington.
Habitat: Shoreline ledges and thickets at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Serviceberry (Amelanchier alnifolia)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains.
Habitat: Open woods, canyons and hillsides, sea level to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Utah serviceberry (Amelanchier utahensis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Baja California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Texas.
Habitat: Rimrock, valleys, gullies and hillsides, from sagebrush desert to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Shadscale (Atriplex canescens)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Sand or gravel slopes and sagebrush flats, saline or not.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bristly sheepburr (Lappula squarrosa)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Shrub-steppe, disturbed areas, roadside.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Shepherd's-purse (Capsella bursa-pastoris)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Weed of disturbed ground.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Alpine shooting star (Primula tetrandra)
Distribution: Occurring in and east of the Cascades in south-central Washington; Washington to California, east to Utah and Arizona.
Habitat: Moist to wet areas in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Broad-leaved shooting star (Primula hendersonii)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Woods and prairies, at low elevations in our area.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Desert shooting star (Primula conjugens)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta and Wyoming.
Habitat: Vernally moist areas in sagebrush to meadows at mid-elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Frigid shooting star (Primula austrofrigidum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in southwestern Washington; southwestern Washington to northwestern Oregon.
Habitat: Moist basaltic slopes, cliff faces, in coniferous forests along streams, or in alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Henderson's shooting star (Primula hendersonii)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Woods and prairies, at low elevations in our area.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Jeffrey's shooting star (Primula jeffreyi)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Wet meadows and stream banks, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Narcissus shooting star (Primula poetica)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to northern and northeastern Oregon.
Habitat: Grassy slopes to drier woods, usually where vernally moist, often near seeps or springs along basaltic outcrops.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Poet's shooting star (Primula poetica)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to northern and northeastern Oregon.
Habitat: Grassy slopes to drier woods, usually where vernally moist, often near seeps or springs along basaltic outcrops.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pretty shooting star (Primula pauciflora)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Mexico, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Coastal prairies to inland saline swamps and shrub-steppe, sea level to timberline
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Slimpod shooting star (Primula conjugens)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta and Wyoming.
Habitat: Vernally moist areas in sagebrush to meadows at mid-elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tall mountain shooting star (Primula jeffreyi)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Wet meadows and stream banks, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tillamook (Primula austrofrigidum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in southwestern Washington; southwestern Washington to northwestern Oregon.
Habitat: Moist basaltic slopes, cliff faces, in coniferous forests along streams, or in alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
White shooting star (Primula latiloba)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to northern Oregon; also in central Idaho
Habitat: Streambanks and other wet places at moderate elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Shotweed (Cardamine hirsuta)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, but more common west of the crest; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Montana, and throughout much of eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed ground at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Creeping sibbaldia (Sibbaldia procumbens)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, and east across most of Canda to the Atlantic Coasl.
Habitat: Open, dry to moist subalpine and alpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sicklegrass (Parapholis incurva)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, also in the southeastern U.S. and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Mostly coastal, along beaches.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Meadow sidalcea (Sidalcea campestris)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington, where escaped from cultivation; endemic to the Willamette Valley of Oregon.
Habitat: Dry fields and roadsides.
Origin: Introduced from Oregon
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sidebells (Orthilia secunda)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across Canada and the northern half of the United States to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Common in coniferous woods at moderate to mid-elevationn in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Douglas's silene (Silene douglasii)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Sagebrush plains to mountain slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Parry's silene (Silene parryi)
Distribution: Widely distributed in the mountainous areas in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Alberta, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Open areas, middle to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Scouler's siliene (Silene scouleri)
Distribution: Occuring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Prairies, forest openings, and meadows from low elevations to the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Seely's silene (Silene seelyi)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where endemic to the Wenatchee Mountains of Kittitas and Chelan counties.
Habitat: Cliffs and talus slopes at moderate to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spalding's silene (Silene spaldingii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the eastern and southeastern counties in Washington; eastern Washington to adjacent northeastern Oregon and western Idaho, also in western Montana.
Habitat: Sagebrush, scabland and ponderosa pine forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dense silky-bent (Apera interrupta)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; also in the central U.S., Great Lakes region, and northeastern U.S.
Habitat: Dry wasteland and other disturbed areas in shrub-steppe and open coniferous forests.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
American silver-berry (Elaeagnus commutata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washington and California (but not Oregon), east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, and eastern Canada.
Habitat: Gravel benches and scabland, commonly along watercourses.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
False silverback (Rainiera stricta)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest from Stevens Pass area south; central Washington to Oregon.
Habitat: Meadows and moist, open hillsides at middle to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-Septermber
Growth Duration: Perennial
Littleleaf silverback (Luina hypoleuca)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest and in the Olympic Mountains in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Open, rocky areas, from moist to somewhat dry, at middle to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tall silvercrown (Cacaliopsis nardosmia)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Meadows, forest edge, forest openings, and light forest understory from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Chinese silvergrass (Miscanthus sinensis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington;
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, forest edge, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Asia
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Coastal silverpuffs (Microseris bigelovii)
Distribution: Known historically from west of the Cascades crest in the San Juan Islands in Washington, but now considered extirpated; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Coastal sandy soils, dunes, occasionally in rocky areas, coastal islands, headlands, and bluffs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Lindley's false silverpuffs (Uropappus lindleyi)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho, Utah, New Mexico, and Texas.
Habitat: Open hillsides and forest openings, from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Nodding silverpuffs (Microseris nutans)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Slopes, meadows, flats, and forest openings,often in somewhat moist places, from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern silverpuffs (Microseris borealis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern Alaska to northern California.
Habitat: Sphagnum bogs and wet meadows in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Silverpuffs (Uropappus lindleyi)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho, Utah, New Mexico, and Texas.
Habitat: Open hillsides and forest openings, from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Common silverweed (Potentilla anserina)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Wet, alkaline areas from coast to arid inlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Single-delight (Moneses uniflora)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska sto California, east to the Rocky Mountains and in eastern North America.
Habitat: Moist woods with high-humas soils, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rattail six-weeks grass (Vulpia myuros)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Balds, open slopes, grasslands, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Rush skeletonplant (Lygodesmia juncea)
Distribution: Known from Spokane County in Washington; southeastern British Columbia to eastern Washington, Idaho and Nevada, east to Great Plains and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Dry, open places, often in sandy soil, from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rush skeletonweed (Chondrilla juncea)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana; also occurring in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, sagebrush desert, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Thorny skeletonweed (Pleiacanthus spinosus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where known from Yakima County; central Oregon to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Dry, open, generally rocky places at lower elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hooded skullcap (Scutellaria galericulata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet meadows and similar habitats at moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mad-dog skullcap (Scutellaria lateriflora)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Alaska, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist bottomlands and meadows, low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Marsh skullcap (Scutellaria galericulata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet meadows and similar habitats at moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Narrow-leaved skullcap (Scutellaria angustifolia)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Idaho, Utah, and Nevada.
Habitat: Moist and drier sites, moderate to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Skunkweed (Navarretia squarrosa)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern Vancouver Island and southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Open, seasonally moist places, mostly at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Small-flower skyrocket (Microgilia minutiflora)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; south-central British Columbia to eastern Oregon, east to western Montana and southern Idaho.
Habitat: Dry, sandy places at low elev, often with sagebrush.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
American sloughgrass (Beckmannia syzigachne)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Pond margins, marshes and ditches at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Dock-leaf smartweed (Persicaria lapathifolia)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Streambanks, pond and lakeshores and other wet places.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dotted smartweed (Persicaria punctata)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Lake and pond shores, marshes, and wet forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Pale smartweed (Persicaria lapathifolia)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Streambanks, pond and lakeshores and other wet places.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Smartweed (Persicaria hydropiper)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Shores, swales, ditches, and disturbed ground.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Swamp smartweed (Persicaria hydropiperoides)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Mexico and South America, east across North America to the Atlantic coast.
Habitat: Moist to swampy areas, often growing in mud, from the lowlands to the lower mountain valleys.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Water smartweed (Persicaria amphibia)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: River, stream, lake, and pond margins in water to 2 meters deep to adjacent moist uplands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Water smartweed (Persicaria punctata)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Lake and pond shores, marshes, and wet forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Alpine smelowskia (Smelowskia americana)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia and Alberta to Nevada, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Rocky areas at high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Short-fruited smelowskia (Smelowskia ovalis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Rocky crevices, moraines, ridges and talus slopes in alpine and sup-alpine regions.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Siberian smelowskia (Smelowskia americana)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia and Alberta to Nevada, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Rocky areas at high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Prairie smoke (Geum triflorum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east to the northern Great Plains, and Great Lakes regions.
Habitat: Prairies, balds, and moister places in the sagebrush plains, from the foothills to subalpine ridges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Smooth medic (Medicago polymorpha)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California, scattered eastward across much of North America.
Habitat: Waste ground and disturbed areas, mostly at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Five-hook smotherweed (Bassia hyssopifolia)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed habitats.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Western snakeroot (Ageratina occidentalis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Montana, Utah, and Nevada.
Habitat: Rocky places at various altitudes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Broom snakeweed (Gutierrezia sarothrae)
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington, chiefly in southeastern part of state; Alberta to Manitoba, south to California and Texas.
Habitat: Dry, open places in the foothills, valleys and plains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Garden snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas in urban settings.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Greater snapdragon (Antirrhinum majus)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas in urban settings.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Lesser snapdragon (Misopates orontium)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, also in Idaho and Utah; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas in urban settings.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Common sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Stream banks and other moist, low ground generally at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Large flowered sneezeweed (Helenium autumnale)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Stream banks and other moist, low ground generally at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Weasel's snout (Misopates orontium)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, also in Idaho and Utah; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas in urban settings.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Snow-in-summer (Cerastium tomentosum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington British Columbia to Oregon, east to Montana, Wyoming, Nebraska, the Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, and wastelots at low elevation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Snow-queen (Veronica regina-nivalis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Forest understory at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Common snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest and distributed widely throughout Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains, and further east to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Thickets, forest edge, and open slopes, from the lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Creeping snowberry (Gaultheria hispidula)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washsington; British Columbia to Washington and Idaho, east across Canada to the Great Lakes region and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Sphagnum bogs and deep coniferous woods.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Creeping snowberry (Symphoricarpos mollis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Nevada, disjunct in north-central Idaho.
Habitat: Slopes and forest edge, often where wet, from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mountain snowberry (Symphoricarpos rotundifolius)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to California east to Rocky Mountains and Great Plains.
Habitat: Open slopes and dry meadows, from sagebrush desert to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western snowberry (Symphoricarpos occidentalis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to Utah, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Prairies, forest margins, and bottomlands from low to mid-elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Snowdrops (Galanthus nivalis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to Washington;
Habitat: Abandoned gardens, roadsides, open forests, forest edge, often where disturbed.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: February-March
Growth Duration: Perennial
Soapberry (Shepherdia canadensis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moderately dry, open to wooded areas, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rock soapwort (Saponaria ocymoides)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California; also in scattered states in the central and eastern U.S.
Habitat: Old gardens, waste sites and rocky places.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Creeping softgrass (Holcus mollis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Lawns and damp areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Common soliva (Soliva sessilis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; British Columbia to California, also in south-central and southeastern U.S.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, roadsides, and lawn areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from South America
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Prickly soliva (Soliva sessilis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; British Columbia to California, also in south-central and southeastern U.S.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, roadsides, and lawn areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from South America
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Star-flowered Solomon's-seal (Maianthemum stellatum)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Moist woods and streambanks to open, rocky hillsides from low elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Two-leaf false Solomon's-seal (Maianthemum dilatatum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Alaska to California, east to northern Idaho.
Habitat: Shady, moist areas, open to dense woods, from sea level to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Soopolallie (Shepherdia canadensis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moderately dry, open to wooded areas, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Africa
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Alpine sheep sorrel (Rumex paucifolius)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist grasslands, stream banks, and montane to alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June -August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Alpine sorrel (Rumex acetosa)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east across Canada to the Great Lakes region and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed sites at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Alpine sorrel (Rumex paucifolius)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist grasslands, stream banks, and montane to alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June -August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Common sheep sorrel (Rumex acetosella)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Balds, prairies, meadows, pastures, fields, roadsides, wastelots, lawns and other disturbed open areas from the lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Common sorrel (Rumex acetosa)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east across Canada to the Great Lakes region and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed sites at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Garden sorrel (Rumex acetosa)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east across Canada to the Great Lakes region and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed sites at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lapland sorrel (Rumex acetosa)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east across Canada to the Great Lakes region and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed sites at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mountain sorrel (Rumex paucifolius)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist grasslands, stream banks, and montane to alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June -August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Common sow-thistle (Sonchus oleraceus)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, but more common west of the crest; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Forest edge, balds, prairies, roadsides, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Field sow-thistle (Sonchus arvensis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Balds, prairies, forest edge, stream banks, roadsides, fields, and other disturbed open areas generally at low elevations, often where moist.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Perennial sow-thistle (Sonchus arvensis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Balds, prairies, forest edge, stream banks, roadsides, fields, and other disturbed open areas generally at low elevations, often where moist.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Prickly sow-thistle (Sonchus asper)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, but more common west of the crest; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Forest edge, balds, prairies, roadsides, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Spiny leaf sow-thistle (Sonchus asper)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, but more common west of the crest; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Forest edge, balds, prairies, roadsides, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Sowbane (Chenopodiastrum murale)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the southern Rocky Mountains; central North America east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Spanish-broom (Spartium junceum)
Distribution: West of the Cascades in Washington; Washington south to California
Habitat: Disturbed areas, roadsides, forest margins.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spatterdock (Nuphar polysepala)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Northwest Territory, Alberta, and the Rocky Mountain States.
Habitat: Ponds, shallow lakes, oxbows, and sluggish streams from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spearmint (Mentha spicata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Banks of streams and ditches and other damp places.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lesser spearwort (Ranunculus flammula)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Mostly in mud, often where brackish, from sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
American alpine speedwell (Veronica wormskjoldii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist ground and seeps, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
American speedwell (Veronica americana)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Ditches, slow moving streams, oxbows, and other water bodies, from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bilobed speedwell (Veronica argute-serrata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains, also in scattered areas of eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed, open areas at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Bird-eye speedwell (Veronica persica)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Lawns and waste ground.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Blue water speedwell (Veronica anagallis-aquatica)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: In or along slow-moving streams and ditches at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Chain speedwell (Veronica catenata)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Slow-moving streams and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Common speedwell (Veronica officinalis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, balds, prairies, ditches, forest edge, lawns, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Corn speedwell (Veronica arvensis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed ground, gardens and roadsides
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Cusick's speedwell (Veronica cusickii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Open, moist, rocky slopes from subalpine to alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Finger speedwell (Veronica triphyllos)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho; also in the central U.S.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, balds, and grasslands.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Germander speedwell (Veronica chamaedrys)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, lawns, gardens, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Grass-leaf speedwell (Veronica scutellata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern North America; Eurasia
Habitat: Wet places and open water, from the lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Gray speedwell (Veronica polita)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southeastern Washington; southeastern Washington to adjacent Idaho, also in central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, lawns, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Ivy-leaf speedwell (Veronica hederifolia)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Idaho and Utah; other scattered locations in central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Waste places, disturbed soil.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Lackschewitz's speedwell (Veronica ×lackschewitzii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where known only from Yakima County; also reported for Nebraska and California.
Habitat: Slow-moving streams and ditches.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Long-leaf speedwell (Veronica longifolia)
Distribution: Known from only a few localities west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washington, east across Canada and the northern U.S. to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, where escaped from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Marsh speedwell (Veronica scutellata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern North America; Eurasia
Habitat: Wet places and open water, from the lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Persian speedwell (Veronica persica)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Lawns and waste ground.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Purslane speedwell (Veronica peregrina)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Swales, wet meadows, stream banks, and other moist places, from the lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Both native (var. xalapensis) and introduced (var. peregrina) varieties
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Skullcap speedwell (Veronica scutellata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern North America; Eurasia
Habitat: Wet places and open water, from the lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spring speedwell (Veronica verna)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Thread-stalk speedwell (Veronica filiformis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Weed of lawns and gardens
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Thyme-leaved speedwell (Veronica serpyllifolia)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist meadows and shores, from the lowlands to the subalpine.
Origin: Both native and introduced
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wall speedwell (Veronica arvensis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed ground, gardens and roadsides
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Yellow spiderflower (Peritoma lutea)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Nebraska.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert to Ponderosa pine forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bald spike-rush (Eleocharis erythropoda)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east from the Rocky Mountains to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Tidal flats, shores, and limy fens.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Capitate spike-rush (Eleocharis geniculata)
Origin: Native
Dwarf spike-rush (Eleocharis coloradoensis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest; southeastern British Columbia to California, east to Idaho, Utah, New Mexico, and Arizona, also in Great Plains and central North America.
Habitat: Sandy shores, deltas, and seeps.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Few-flowered spike-rush (Eleocharis quinqueflora)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across the northern U.S. and Canada to northeastern North America; circumboreal.
Habitat: Bogs and other wet places, from the lowlands to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Quill spike-rush (Eleocharis nitida)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to the Mount Rainier area.
Habitat: Pond shores, mossy springs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Redfoot spike-rush (Eleocharis erythropoda)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east from the Rocky Mountains to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Tidal flats, shores, and limy fens.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Slender spike-rush (Eleocharis uniglumis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where known only from a historic collection (1935); British Columbia to Washington, also Nevada, scattered east across North America to the Atlantic Coast; circumboreal.
Habitat: Shores, dunes, alkaline marshes, and peatlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Soft-stem spike-rush (Eleocharis mamillata)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in western Washington; Alaska to northwest Washington, east to the Canadian Great Plains, Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Tidal flats, lakes, peatlands, and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cliff spikemoss (Selaginella scopulorum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Texas.
Habitat: Rock outcroppings and crevices from middle elevations to the alpine.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Festoon spikemoss (Selaginella oregana)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the outer coast, lower western slopes of the Olympic Mountains and the coast range in Washington, rarely in slope of western Cascades; southwestern British Columbia to northwestern California.
Habitat: Epiphytic or on rocks in humid areas at low elevations along the coast.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Oregon spikemoss (Selaginella oregana)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the outer coast, lower western slopes of the Olympic Mountains and the coast range in Washington, rarely in slope of western Cascades; southwestern British Columbia to northwestern California.
Habitat: Epiphytic or on rocks in humid areas at low elevations along the coast.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rocky Mountain spikemoss (Selaginella scopulorum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Texas.
Habitat: Rock outcroppings and crevices from middle elevations to the alpine.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wallace's spikemoss (Selaginella wallacei)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana.
Habitat: Exposed, terrestrial, often rocky sites, such as pocket of soil in ledges and cliffs
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
False spikenard (Maianthemum racemosum)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains, also from the central U.S. to the Atlantic Coast of eastern North America.
Habitat: Open woodlands, forest edge, moist meadow and forest openings from sea level to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Beaked spikerush (Eleocharis rostellata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Shores, wet meadows, seeps, hot springs, fens, often where alkaline.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Blunt spikerush (Eleocharis obtusa)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho, Wyoming, and Colorado, also east from the Great Plains to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Pond and lake shores, riparian zones, and other wet areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Common spikerush (Eleocharis palustris)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet places from sea level to moderate elevations in the mountains; tolerant of alkali.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Creeping spikerush (Eleocharis macrostachya)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to eastern Canada and the midwestern U.S.
Habitat: Shores, marshes, often alkaline, vernal pools, and dunes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Engelman spikerush (Eleocharis engelmannii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Marshes and other wet places, from sea level to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Little-head spikerush (Eleocharis parvula)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, and from Kansas east and north to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet, saline or alkaline soils.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Needle spikerush (Eleocharis acicularis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast; circumboreal.
Habitat: Marshes, muddy shores, and other wet places.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Ovoid spikerush (Eleocharis ovata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia and Alberta to Oregon, also in Arizona, and from Oklahoma east to eastern North America.
Habitat: Marshes and other wet places, from sea level to moderate elevagtions in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Pretty spikerush (Eleocharis bella)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Montana, Nevada, Arizona, and New Mexico.
Habitat: Shores, sloughs, wet meadows, and vernal pools.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Suksdorf spikerush (Eleocharis suksdorfiana)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; central British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado.
Habitat: Shores, peatlands, wet meadows, and seeps from middle elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Common spikeweed (Centromadia pungens)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central and south-central Washington; central Washington to California, where native east to Idaho, Nevada, and Arizona.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open places at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from California
Flowers: July-Sept.
Growth Duration: Annual
French spinach (Atriplex hortensis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains and in scattered locations in eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, often where seasonally moist.
Origin: Introduced from Asia
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Annual
New Zealand spinach (Tetragonia tetragonioides)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the outer coast in Washington; Washington to California, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Sand dunes, bluffs, margins of coastal wetlands, and disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
European spindle tree (Euonymus europaeus)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed east of the Mississippi in the U.S. and in eastern Canada.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, often where moist.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Five-tooth spineflower (Chorizanthe watsonii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central Washington; Washington to California, east to Montana, Utah, or Arizona.
Habitat: Sandy to gravelly flats and slopes, mixed grassland, saltbush and sagebrush communities, often where disturbed.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Watson's spineflower (Chorizanthe watsonii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central Washington; Washington to California, east to Montana, Utah, or Arizona.
Habitat: Sandy to gravelly flats and slopes, mixed grassland, saltbush and sagebrush communities, often where disturbed.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Douglas's spiraea (Spiraea douglasii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana and Colorado.
Habitat: Swamps, lake margins and damp meadows, from sea level to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hitchcock's spiraea (Spiraea ×hitchcockii)
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades in Washington; northern Washington to Oregon.
Habitat: Forest openings at low to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pyramid spiraea (Spiraea ×pyramidata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Somewhat dry forest openings, from the lowlands to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rosy spiraea (Spiraea splendens)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California and Nevada, east to Alberta, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Moist forest openings and rocky slopes, middle to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Shiny-leaf spiraea (Spiraea lucida)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Saskatchewan and Wyoming.
Habitat: Stream banks and open to wooded areas, sea level to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Shinyleaf spiraea (Spiraea lucida)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Saskatchewan and Wyoming.
Habitat: Stream banks and open to wooded areas, sea level to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Subalpine spiraea (Spiraea splendens)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California and Nevada, east to Alberta, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Moist forest openings and rocky slopes, middle to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Green spleenwort (Asplenium viride)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across northern North America to New England and the Canadian Maritimes; circumboreal.
Habitat: Cliff crevices, especially on limestone, often near or above timberline.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Maidenhair spleenwort (Asplenium trichomanes)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, also in southern Rocky Mountain states and in central U.S. and eastern North America.
Habitat: Cliff crevices, rocky outcroppings, and talus slopes, generally where moist.
Origin: Native
Spores: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
South American sponge-plant (Limnobium laevigatum)
Distribution: Known from Pacific County in Washington; also known from California and the eastern U.S.
Habitat: Lowland ponds, where found floating on water\'s surface.
Origin: Introduced from the Carribean and South America
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spoonwort (Cochlearia groenlandica)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest on the outer coast and along the Salish Sea in Washington; Alaska to California, east across northern Canada to the Atlantic Coast and Greenland.
Habitat: Along immediate coast in tidal flats, maritime rocky beaches, dunes, lagoons, stream banks, and peat hammocks,
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Clustered salt-grassprangletop (Diplachne fusca)
Distribution: Occurring in a few scattered locations chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: August-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Loose-flowered sprangletop (Diplachne fusca)
Distribution: Occurring in a few scattered locations chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: August-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Montane spring parsley (Cymopterus foeniculaceus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to northeastern Oregon, east to Montana, Wyoming and Utah.
Habitat: Forest openings, meadows, and other open, dry areas from montane to alpine areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Turpentine spring parsley (Cymopterus terebinthinus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; north-central Washington to northeast Oregon, east to western Idaho.
Habitat: Sand dunes and other dry, open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spring-gold (Crocidium multicaule)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Dry, open areas from low to middle elevations, especially common in sagebrush.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Spring-gold (Lomatium utriculatum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Grassy balds, prairies, meadows, and open slopes, often at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Alpine springbeauty (Claytonia megarhiza)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the Wenatchee Mountains of Washington; in scattered locations from Northwest Territories to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Gravelly soil and talus slopes, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Broadleaf springbeauty (Claytonia cordifolia)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Utah.
Habitat: On wet soil, usually along streams, moderate to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Great Basin springbeauty (Claytonia umbellata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the Wenatchee Mountains in Washington, where disjunct from the main range of the species; Wasco and Wallowa counties, Oregon to California and western Nevada, disjunct in the Wenatchee Mountains of Washington.
Habitat: Montane to subalpine talus and scree.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Heart-leaf springbeauty (Claytonia cordifolia)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Utah.
Habitat: On wet soil, usually along streams, moderate to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lake Washington springbeauty (Claytonia washingtoniana)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon.
Habitat: Coastal bluffs and coniferous forests at low elevations, typically where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: January-June
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Lanceleaf springbeauty (Claytonia lanceolata)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Sasketchewan.
Habitat: Sagebrush foothills to alpine slopes, usually where vernally moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rydberg's springbeauty (Claytonia multiscapa)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; in scattered locations from British Columbia south to Washington; east to Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Rocky subalpine to alpine slopes and outcroppings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sand springbeauty (Claytonia arenicola)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest along the eastern border of Washington and in the Columbia River Gorge; Washington to Oregon, east to Idaho and western Montana.
Habitat: Mossy and rocky places, from sagebrush desert to ponderosa pine forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Siberian springbeauty (Claytonia sibirica)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana and northeastern Oregon and southeastern Idaho.
Habitat: Moist, usually shady places, lowlands to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Small-flowered springbeauty (Claytonia parviflora)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Open rocky areas, open forest, forest edge, and disturbed areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Streambank springbeauty (Montia parvifolia)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Dry soils, rocky outcrops, and other open, exposed areas from the coast to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Western springbeauty (Claytonia sibirica)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana and northeastern Oregon and southeastern Idaho.
Habitat: Moist, usually shady places, lowlands to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Engelmann's spruce (Picea engelmannii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moderate to high elevations in the mountains, mostly where somewhat moist.
Origin: Native
Cones: New cones from June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Interior spruce (Picea ×albertiana)
Origin: Native
Sitka spruce (Picea sitchensis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Along the coast, from sea level up to about 2,000 feet in moist valleys.
Origin: Native
Cones: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Balkan spurge (Euphorbia oblongata)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Broad leaved glaucous spurge (Euphorbia myrsinites)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Disturbed areas often arid areas or dry soils.
Origin: Introduced from Mediterranean
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Caper spurge (Euphorbia lathyris)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California east to Idaho, Montana, Arizona, and Texas; widely distributed in eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed soil and wasteland.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Corrugate seeded spurge (Euphorbia glyptosperma)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Dry, sandy soil, from the plains to the lower mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Cypress spurge (Euphorbia cyparissias)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed areas where often escaped from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Egg-leaf spurge (Euphorbia oblongata)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Leafy spurge (Euphorbia virgata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Noxious weed of disturbed soils
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Milk spurge (Euphorbia maculata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed soil and waste areas.
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Myrtle spurge (Euphorbia myrsinites)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Disturbed areas often arid areas or dry soils.
Origin: Introduced from Mediterranean
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Petty spurge (Euphorbia peplus)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Weed of disturbed ground.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-November
Growth Duration: Annual
Reticulate seeded spurge (Euphorbia spathulata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; eastern Washington to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist open areas, prairies, and woodlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Ridge seeded spurge (Euphorbia glyptosperma)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Dry, sandy soil, from the plains to the lower mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Spatulate leaved spurge (Euphorbia spathulata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; eastern Washington to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist open areas, prairies, and woodlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Spotted spurge (Euphorbia maculata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed soil and waste areas.
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Summer spurge (Euphorbia helioscopia)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the northern Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains, Texas, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Weed of cultivated areas and abondoned gardens.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Sun spurge (Euphorbia helioscopia)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the northern Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains, Texas, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Weed of cultivated areas and abondoned gardens.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Thyme-leaved spurge (Euphorbia serpillifolia)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Baja California, east to the Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Dry ground from the plains to the lower mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Upright spurge (Euphorbia serrulata)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Washington.
Habitat: Disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Urban spurge (Euphorbia agraria)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in eastern Washington; also in Montana, and scattered locations eastward to eastern North America.
Habitat: Fields and grasslands, where disturbed.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wart spurge (Euphorbia helioscopia)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the northern Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains, Texas, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Weed of cultivated areas and abondoned gardens.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Warty spurge (Euphorbia spathulata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; eastern Washington to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist open areas, prairies, and woodlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Spurge-laurel (Daphne laureola)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon.
Habitat: Roadsides, forest understory and edge, wastelots, and other disturbed areas in the lowlands.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Corn spurry (Spergula arvensis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Squashberry (Viburnum edule)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, across Canada, the Great Lakes area, and further east to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Moist woods and swamps.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Big squirreltail (Elymus multisetus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to California, east to Idaho, Colorado, and Arizona.
Habitat: Dry, often rocky, open woodland and thickets on slopes and plains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Squirreltail (Elymus elymoides)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to southern California, east to the Great Plains and eastern North America.
Habitat: Dry and rocky to moist habitats, from along the coast to inland desert plains and prairies, and to the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bog St. John's wort (Hypericum anagalloides)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Baja California, east to Montana, Utah, and Nevada.
Habitat: Moist ground, from the coast to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Canadian St. John's wort (Hypericum canadense)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to southwestern Oregon.
Habitat: Coastal, shores, damp sand or peat, damp or wet disturbed ground, and cranberry farms.
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Common St. John's wort (Hypericum perforatum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Noxious weed of fields, meadows, roadsides, forest edge, wastelots, and other disturbed areas from the lowlands to near subalpine.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Creeping St. John's wort (Hypericum anagalloides)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Baja California, east to Montana, Utah, and Nevada.
Habitat: Moist ground, from the coast to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dwarf St. John's wort (Hypericum mutilum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to western Washington; also in eastern North America, where native.
Habitat: Shores, often where peaty.
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Great St. John's wort (Hypericum calycinum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, cliffs, embankments, fields, parks, forest edge, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Turkey and Bulgaria
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Greater Canadian St. John's wort (Hypericum majus)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Peatlands, shores, damp sand, and cranberry farms.
Origin: Both native and introduced from eastern North America
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Marsh St. John's wort (Triadenum fraseri)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to southwestern Washington.
Habitat: Peatlands, ditches, sandy shores, floating logs, and cranberry farms.
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern St. John's wort (Hypericum boreale)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Coastal shores, damp sand, peatlands, ditches, and cranberry farms.
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Norton's St. John's wort (Hypericum scouleri)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist places from along the coast to well up in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pale St. John's wort (Hypericum ellipticum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to southwestern Washington.
Habitat: Coastal, damp sand and peat, and cranberry farms.
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Scouler's St. John's wort (Hypericum scouleri)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist places from along the coast to well up in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spotted St. John's wort (Hypericum maculatum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to southwestern Washington, also in northern Idaho.
Habitat: Shores, disturbed ground, and ditches.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Square-stalked St. John's wort (Hypericum tetrapterum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to southwestern Washington.
Habitat: Freshwater intertidal marshes, floating logs, and damp gravel.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Streaked St. John's wort (Hypericum maculatum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to southwestern Washington, also in northern Idaho.
Habitat: Shores, disturbed ground, and ditches.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western St. John's wort (Hypericum scouleri)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist places from along the coast to well up in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Staggerweed (Stachys arvensis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California; also along the Gulf Coast and in the northeastern U.S.
Habitat: Weed in disturbed areas, typically where moist.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Garden star-of-Bethlehem (Ornithogalum umbellatum)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Utah, also from Great Plains to eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, open forests, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed areas at low elevation.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Iberian star-thistle (Centaurea iberica)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, also in Wyoming and Kansas.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, dry meadows, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Maltese star-thistle (Centaurea melitensis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to California and Mexico, east to Texas and eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, meadows, balds, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from the Mediterranean region
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Montane star-thistle (Centaurea montana)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Montana, Idaho, and Utah, also from Great Lakes region to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, shores, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Purple star-thistle (Centaurea calcitrapa)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to New Mexico, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Red star-thistle (Centaurea calcitrapa)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to New Mexico, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Yellow star-thistle (Centaurea solstitialis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, meadows, grassy slopes, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Green-banded star-tulip (Calochortus macrocarpus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Nevada.
Habitat: Dry open forests, hillsides, grasslands and sagebrush, low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Arctic starflower (Lysimachia europaea)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Northwest Territories, Sasketchewan, and Idaho; also in Eurasia.
Habitat: Bogs and swamps, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Broad-leaved starflower (Lysimachia latifolia)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to northern Idaho.
Habitat: Prairies, woodlands, and forest openings from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern starflower (Lysimachia europaea)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Northwest Territories, Sasketchewan, and Idaho; also in Eurasia.
Habitat: Bogs and swamps, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western starflower (Lysimachia latifolia)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to northern Idaho.
Habitat: Prairies, woodlands, and forest openings from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Water stargrass (Heteranthera dubia)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest along major rivers in Washington, however particularly common and rather invasives in lower Yakima River; British Columbia to California, widespread in eastern North America.
Habitat: River backwaters, slow-moving rivers, quiet streams, ponds and lakes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Yellow stargrass (Heteranthera dubia)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest along major rivers in Washington, however particularly common and rather invasives in lower Yakima River; British Columbia to California, widespread in eastern North America.
Habitat: River backwaters, slow-moving rivers, quiet streams, ponds and lakes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Blunt-sepaled starwort (Engellaria obtusa)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist forest and riparian zone understory, talus slopes, from low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Boreal starwort (Stellaria borealis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes Region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Moist or marshy areas from low elevations to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Crisped starwort (Stellaria crispa)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Moist areas from the lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Grass-leaf starwort (Stellaria graminea)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, and from the southern Great Plains east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, pastures, and lawns.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Long-leaved starwort (Stellaria longifolia)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, further east across Canada and the northern Great Plains to eastern North America.
Habitat: Wet meadows, swamps, marshes, forested wetlands from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Longstalk starwort (Stellaria longipes)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across Canada and the northern Great Plains to eastern North America.
Habitat: Moist streambanks and rocky slopes at mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern bog starwort (Stellaria calycantha)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist meadows and steam banks, from low to high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Saltmarsh starwort (Stellaria humifusa)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the coast in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east across Canada to the Atlantic coast; circumboreal.
Habitat: Salt marshes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Shiny starwort (Stellaria nitens)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Baja California, east to Montana, Idaho, Utah, and Arizona.
Habitat: Gravelly prairies and stream banks to grassy hillsides at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Sticky starwort (Pseudostellaria jamesiana)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho, Wyoming and New Mexico.
Habitat: Moist or dry open woods, rocky slopes and meadows, from moderate to high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Umbrella starwort (Stellaria umbellata)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Wetlands, riparian zones, stream banks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hardhack steeplebush (Spiraea douglasii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana and Colorado.
Habitat: Swamps, lake margins and damp meadows, from sea level to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Long-horn steer's-head (Dicentra uniflora)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to Montana and Colorado.
Habitat: Well-drained soil, foothills to subalpine slopes; blooms soon after the snow leaves.
Origin: Native
Flowers: February-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Narrowleaf stephanomeria (Stephanomeria tenuifolia)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, and Texas.
Habitat: Dry, often rocky places, from the foothills and plains to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Stiff-branched stephanomeria (Stephanomeria paniculata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Dry, open places in the plains and foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Blue stickseed (Hackelia micrantha)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist, open hillsides seasonally wet forest openings, and riparian corridors from montane to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bristly stickseed (Lappula squarrosa)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Shrub-steppe, disturbed areas, roadside.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Common stickseed (Lappula squarrosa)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Shrub-steppe, disturbed areas, roadside.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Diffuse stickseed (Hackelia diffusa)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon.
Habitat: Cliffs and talus slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
European stickseed (Lappula squarrosa)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Shrub-steppe, disturbed areas, roadside.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Gray stickseed (Hackelia cinerea)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central and eastern Washington; central Washington to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Open or lightly forested areas, especially on talus or cliffs, and loose stream banks, in valleys and foothills to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hispid stickseed (Hackelia hispida)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central and southeastern Washington; central Washington, and southeastern Washington, northeastern Oregon, and adjacent western Idaho.
Habitat: Cliffs and talus slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lesser showy stickseed (Hackelia venusta)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where endemic to Chelan County.
Habitat: Rocky slopes with ponderosa pine, at about 1000 feet elevation.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Long-spined stickseed (Lappula longispina)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; south-central British Columbia to southwest Idaho.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert, dry slopes, basalt rimrock, and sand dunes
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Many-flowered stickseed (Hackelia floribunda)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Thickets, meadows, stream banks and other moist places, from low elevations to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Nodding stickseed (Hackelia americana)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in north-central and northeastern Washington; circumboreal, south to northern Washington, east across northern Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Thickets and open woodland.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Okanogan stickseed (Hackelia ciliata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in eastern Washington; south-central British Columbia to eastern Washington, possibly northwestern Idaho.
Habitat: Dry, open slopes and flats in areas with sagebrush or ponderosa pine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rough stickseed (Hackelia hispida)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central and southeastern Washington; central Washington, and southeastern Washington, northeastern Oregon, and adjacent western Idaho.
Habitat: Cliffs and talus slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Showy stickseed (Hackelia venusta)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where endemic to Chelan County.
Habitat: Rocky slopes with ponderosa pine, at about 1000 feet elevation.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Taylor's stickseed (Hackelia taylorii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where endemic to Chelan County.
Habitat: Dry, open slopes, often in talus, at middle to high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western stickseed (Lappula occidentalis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert and open, rocky slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Sticktight (Bidens frondosa)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Shores of ponds, lakes, backwater channels, and other wetland areas at low elevations, often where disturbed.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Western sticktight (Bidens vulgata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across all but the southwestern U.S. to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Streamsides, ponds, lakes, ditches and other moist to wet waste places.
Origin: Introduced from British Columbia
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Sticky-laurel (Ceanothus velutinus)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, South Dakota, Wyoming, and Colorado.
Habitat: Moist to dry open forests, low to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sticky-willy (Galium aparine)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Variety of habitats, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Stinkgrass (Eragrostis cilianensis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed areas and waste land, and along streams and pond margins.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Stinkweed (Peritoma serrulata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Ontario, the Great Lakes region, and Ohio.
Habitat: Sagebrush deserts and Ponderosa pine forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Stinky-Bob (Geranium robertianum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana, further east in Canada, the Great Lakes region, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Forest understory and forest edges, riparian zones, and other lowland areas with natural or man-made disturbances.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Bog stitchwort (Stellaria alsine)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Washington; native to eastern North America; also introduced in Chile.
Habitat: Streambanks, culverts, ditches, and moist forest edges, typically where disturbed.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Boreal stitchwort (Sabulina rubella)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains, east across Canada to the northeastern North America.
Habitat: Subalpine to alpine meadows, ridges and talus slopes
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - August
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Boreal stitchwort (Stellaria borealis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes Region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Moist or marshy areas from low elevations to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dwarf stitchwort (Sabulina pusilla)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest from Klickitat County to the southeastern counties in Washington; southern Washington to California, east to northeastern Oregon and adjacent Idaho.
Habitat: Dry, rocky cliffs and outcroppings in sagebrush desert to ponderosa pine forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Slender stitchwort (Sabulina macra)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon.
Habitat: Lowlands, prairies and coastal bluffs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Hoary stock (Matthiola incana)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; also known from California and Texas.
Habitat: Roadsides, sandy cliffs, beaches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas where escaped from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Broadleaf stonecrop (Sedum spathulifolium)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Coastal cliffs, ledges, balds, and gravelly soil in the foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Ditch stonecrop (Penthorum sedoides)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in southwestern Washington; southwestern British Columbia to northwestern Oregon.
Habitat: Cultivated cranberry bogs.
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Forster's stonecrop (Sedum forsterianum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to western Washington.
Habitat: Roadsides, bluffs, and rocky soil, where escaping from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lance-leaved stonecrop (Sedum lanceolatum)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains in the U.S. and Canada.
Habitat: On rocks or gravel in open, dry areas, from sea level to the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lance-leaved stonecrop (Sedum rupicola)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington east to Idaho.
Habitat: Open, exposed places, usually on rocks or in gravelly soil, at moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Leiberg's stonecrop (Sedum leibergii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Oregon, east to Montana.
Habitat: Mossy rocks to open, gravelly hillsides, chiefly in canyons.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mossy stonecrop (Crassula tillaea)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, rock crevices, and sandy areas, often where seasonally wet or moist.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-April
Growth Duration: Annual
Mossy stonecrop (Sedum acre)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to Oregon, east across Canada, and the central, southeastern, and northeastern U.S. to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed ground at low elevation.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Oregon stonecrop (Sedum oreganum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Rock ledges, talus slopes and gravelly ridges from low elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pacific stonecrop (Sedum divergens)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta.
Habitat: Open, rocky areas, mid- to high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Short-leaved stonecrop (Sedum brevifolium)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington in King County, WA.
Habitat: Cliffs and exposed rock faces.
Origin: Introduced from southern Europe
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spatula-leaf stonecrop (Sedum spathulifolium)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Coastal cliffs, ledges, balds, and gravelly soil in the foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spreading stonecrop (Sedum divergens)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta.
Habitat: Open, rocky areas, mid- to high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Stonecrop (Sedum rupicola)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington east to Idaho.
Habitat: Open, exposed places, usually on rocks or in gravelly soil, at moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Thart's stonecrop (Sedum thartii)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Roadsides, and rocky banks.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
White stonecrop (Sedum album)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Utah, and in northeastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed, open areas including fields, lawns, parking areas, and rocky outcroppings.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wormleaf stonecrop (Sedum stenopetalum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascade crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the northern Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Grasslands and ponderosa pine forests to sub-alpine ridges, on dry, gravelly benches, rock crevices and talus.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Fringed stoneseed (Lithospermum incisum)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where known historically (1926) from Osoyoos Lake area; south-central British Columbia to southwest Montana, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Dry, rocky slopes and forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Common stork's-bill (Erodium cicutarium)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, meadows, lawns, balds, prairies, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Longbeak stork's-bill (Erodium botrys)
Distribution: Currently known in Washington only from Klickitat County; Washington to California, also in Texas and scattered states in the northeastern U.S.
Habitat: Disturbed, open ground.
Origin: Introduced from the Mediterranean
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Redstem (Erodium cicutarium)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, meadows, lawns, balds, prairies, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Stranvaesia (Photinia davidiana)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington.
Habitat: Thickets, open forests, shores, rarely epiphytic
Origin: Introduced from China
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Strapwort (Corrigiola litoralis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in southwestern Washington; southern British Columbia to Oregon; also in Maryland.
Habitat: Lake and pond margins, often where disturbed.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Beach strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in the coastal counties of Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Sand dunes, strand, headlands, and other open coastal habitats.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Blueleaf strawberry (Fragaria virginiana)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington except in sagebrush areas; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open woods to gravelly meadows in the plains and lower mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Coastal strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in the coastal counties of Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Sand dunes, strand, headlands, and other open coastal habitats.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mountain strawberry (Fragaria virginiana)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington except in sagebrush areas; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open woods to gravelly meadows in the plains and lower mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist woods, stream banks and sandy meadows, low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; currently known as escaped from cultivation in Washington.
Habitat: Disturbed, open to partially sunny areas in and around urban areas, where escaped from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Strawberry-blight (Blitum hastatum)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in north-central and northeastern Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, and east across Canada to the Great Lakes region and eastern North America.
Habitat: Moist to dry soil, sandy or grassy meadows, thickets, open woods, old fields of clearings in forest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Strawberry-tomato (Physalis grisea)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, also in Utah; more widespread in the central and eastern U.S.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastleots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Streptanthella (Streptanthella longirostris)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in south-central Washington; Washington to California, east to Wyoming and New Mexico.
Habitat: Open desert and sagebrush slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Gum succory (Chondrilla juncea)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana; also occurring in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, sagebrush desert, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wild succory (Cichorium intybus)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Sugarbowls (Clematis hirsutissima)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in eastern Washington; Washington to Oregon, east to Montana, south to Arizona and New Mexico.
Habitat: Meadows, grasslands, and forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sugarstick (Allotropa virgata)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Idaho, and Nevada.
Habitat: Deep humus of coniferous forests at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sulfurflower (Eriogonum umbellatum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Sagebrush deserts to alpine rocky ridges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Smooth sumac (Rhus glabra)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Mexico, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Dry hillsides and draws, low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations in Washington; occurring in scattered states in western North America; native from central U.S. east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed areas; escaping from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Blackfoot river suncup (Neoholmgrenia andina)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, Montana, Wyoming, and Utah.
Habitat: Dry hillsides and sagebrush scablands to the ponderosa pine forests of the foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Contorted pod suncup (Camissonia contorta)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to Baja California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Sandy soil along the coast and along inland rivers.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Dwarf suncup (Eremothera pygmaea)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades in Washington; central Washington to southeastern Oregon, east to southwestern Idaho.
Habitat: Rocky or sandy slopes, talus, gravel washes, and disturbed areas in sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Green river suncup (Eremothera minor)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where disjunct; southeastern Oregon to California, east to south-central Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert, often where vernally moist
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Hilgard's suncup (Neoholmgrenia hilgardii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Okanogan County to Klickitat County, Washington, and historic (1919) in Multanomah County, Oregon.
Habitat: Sagebrush deserts.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Lewis river suncup (Camissonia parvula)
Distribution: Disjunct in south-central Washington, where occurring east of the Cascades crest; otherwise southeastern Oregon to southern California, east to Carbon County, Montana and Colorado.
Habitat: Open to disturbed grasslands, sandy areas, sagebrush, and scrub forest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Little suncup (Camissonia pusilla)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington. north-central Washington to California, east to southern Idaho and Utah.
Habitat: Dry, sandy slopes in sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Obscure suncup (Neoholmgrenia andina)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, Montana, Wyoming, and Utah.
Habitat: Dry hillsides and sagebrush scablands to the ponderosa pine forests of the foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Twisted suncup (Camissonia contorta)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to Baja California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Sandy soil along the coast and along inland rivers.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
English sundew (Drosera anglica)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to the Sierra Nevada of California, east to the Great Lakes region and eastern Canada.
Habitat: Bogs and swamps from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Giant sundew (Drosera anglica)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to the Sierra Nevada of California, east to the Great Lakes region and eastern Canada.
Habitat: Bogs and swamps from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hybrid sundew (Drosera ×obovata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California; circumboreal
Habitat: Swamps and bogs, lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Obovate sundew (Drosera ×obovata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California; circumboreal
Habitat: Swamps and bogs, lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Round-leaf sundew (Drosera rotundifolia)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across Montana and North Dakota, and most of the United states east of the Mississipps River.
Habitat: Swamps and bogs, lowlands to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Common sunflower (Helianthus annuus)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other open areas, often where disturbed, at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native and introduced populations in Washington
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Cusick's sunflower (Helianthus cusickii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Sagebrush, grasslands, dry slopes, and other open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Nuttall's sunflower (Helianthus nuttallii)
Distribution: Chiefly east of the Cascades: Western and Mid-western United States and adjacent Canada
Habitat: Meadows and other moist places, low to moderate elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: July - September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Prairie sunflower (Helianthus petiolaris)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Dry, open areas, often where disturbed.
Origin: Introduced from the Great Plains
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Smooth dwarf sunflower (Wyethia amplexicaulis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Nevada, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Seasonally moist areas in sagebrush-steppe, to open areas at moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Turniproot sunflower (Helianthus cusickii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Sagebrush, grasslands, dry slopes, and other open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Oregon sunshine (Eriophyllum lanatum)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Utah.
Habitat: Dry, open, often rocky areas at low elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Scouler's surf-grass (Phyllospadix scouleri)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the coast of Washington where rocky; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Rocky intertidal and sub-tidal zones.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Toothed surf-grass (Phyllospadix serrulatus)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the rocky coastline of northwestern Washington; Alaska to Washington.
Habitat: On rocks in upper tidal to subtidal zones, rarely on deep clay substrates.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Torrey's surf-grass (Phyllospadix torreyi)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the rocky coastline of northwestern Washington; British Columbia to California along the immediate coast.
Habitat: Rocky sub-tidal zone.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Alkali swainsonpea (Sphaerophysa salsula)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades in Washington, chiefly in the central part of the state; Washington to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Alkaline soil at low elevations, often where disturbed.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Swampcandles (Lysimachia terrestris)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the coast in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon and Idaho; native and abundant in central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Cultivated cranberry bogs, and swamps.
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Blunt-fruit sweet-cicely (Osmorhiza depauperata)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Forest understory and edge, often where moist from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mountain sweet-cicely (Osmorhiza berteroi)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Lakes region, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Forest understory and edge, from near sea level to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Purple sweet-cicely (Osmorhiza purpurea)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Moist forest openings, understory, and edge from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sierran sweet-cicely (Osmorhiza occidentalis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains from Alberta to Utah.
Habitat: Forest openings and edge, thickets, and riparian zones from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western sweet-cicely (Osmorhiza occidentalis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains from Alberta to Utah.
Habitat: Forest openings and edge, thickets, and riparian zones from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Annual yellow sweet-clover (Melilotus indicus)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho, Utah, and Nevada, further east across the southern U.S. and in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Small-flowered yellow sweet-clover (Melilotus indicus)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho, Utah, and Nevada, further east across the southern U.S. and in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
White sweet-clover (Melilotus albus)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed across most of North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Yellow sweet-clover (Melilotus officinalis)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Western sweet-vetch (Hedysarum occidentale)
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic Mountains in Washington; British Columbia to Washington, Idaho and Utah, east to Alberta, Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado.
Habitat: Alpine and subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Yellow sweet-vetch (Hedysarum sulphurescens)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in north-central and northeastern Washington; British Columbia to Washington, east to Alberta, Montana, and Wyoming, also reported from northeastern Oregon.
Habitat: Open forested areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Small-flowered sweetbrier (Rosa rubiginosa)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington, though more common west of the crest; southern British Columbia to California, east to Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado, further east from the Great Plains to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, thickets, shorelines, pastures, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced Eurasia and northern Africa
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sweetgale (Myrica gale)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east across Canada to the Great Lakes region and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Coastal bogs, swamps, lakes, and streams.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
California sweetgrass (Hierochloe occidentalis)
Distribution: Occurring along Cascades crest in Washington in south-central Washington; south-central Washington to California.
Habitat: moist to dry for and second growth
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hairy sweetgrass (Hierochloe odorata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washington, east across the northern half of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet meadows and marshes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Alpine bog swertia (Swertia perennis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in west-central Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; circumboreal.
Habitat: Streambanks, wet meadows and other moist places, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Swertia (Swertia perennis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in west-central Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; circumboreal.
Habitat: Streambanks, wet meadows and other moist places, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lesser swinecress (Lepidium didymum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, Arizona, and Texas eastward and northward to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, gardens and wasteland.
Origin: Introduced from South America (or possibly Eurasia)
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Anderson's sword-fern (Polystichum andersonii)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern Alaska to northern Oregon, northern Idaho, and northwest Montana.
Habitat: Deep woods and thickets in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
California sword-fern (Polystichum californicum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Moist forest understory at low elevations, typically in rock crevices.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Imbricate sword-fern (Polystichum imbricans)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California, eastern Idaho, and northern Idaho.
Habitat: Drier habitats such as open rock crevices and dry conifer forest, occasionally on serpentine, mostly at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rock sword-fern (Polystichum imbricans)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California, eastern Idaho, and northern Idaho.
Habitat: Drier habitats such as open rock crevices and dry conifer forest, occasionally on serpentine, mostly at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sycamore (Platanus occidentalis)
Distribution: Occurring along the shores of the Columbia River in central and south-central Washington; common and native in central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Near streams, lakes, and moist ravines, often where disturbed.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Round-leaved synthyris (Veronica regina-nivalis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Forest understory at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Perennial