Vascular Plants

Includes all flowering plants, conifers, ferns and fern-allies.

Browse by common name:
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Common names beginning with F:
Fairy-bells (Prosartes hookeri)
Distribution: Occurring in forested areas on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana.
Habitat: Moist, shady, wooded areas, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hooker's fairy-bells (Prosartes hookeri)
Distribution: Occurring in forested areas on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana.
Habitat: Moist, shady, wooded areas, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Smith's fairy-bells (Prosartes smithii)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Open to dense moist woods at lower elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wartberry fairy-bells (Prosartes trachycarpa)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains of the U.S. and Canada, reaching Ontario and Michigan.
Habitat: Wooded slopes, often near streams, and in aspen groves.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern fairy-candelabra (Androsace septentrionalis)
Distribution: Occurring in the North Cascades in Washington; Alaska to California; east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, and east to Newfoundland; circumpolar.
Habitat: Alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
White fairy-poppy (Meconella oregana)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Open ground, balds, and prairies where wet in the spring.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-April
Growth Duration: Annual
Fairy-slipper (Calypso bulbosa)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, east across Canada to the Great Lakes region and eastern North America.
Habitat: Mostly in cool, deep shade of moist forests in soil rich in humus, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Diamond fairyfan (Clarkia rhomboidea)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southeastern British Columbia to California and Arizona, east to Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Nevada.
Habitat: Dry, often sandy soil in forest openings at low to moderate elevtions.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
False agoseris (Nothocalais troximoides)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Wyoming and Utah.
Habitat: Dry, open areas from and foothills, especially in lithosol.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
American false hellebore (Veratrum viride)
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout the forest and mountainous areas of Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the northern Rocky Mountains; eastern North America from Alabama to Newfoundland.
Habitat: Moist meadows and woodlands, lowlands to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
California false hellebore (Veratrum californicum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist meadows and woodlands, lowlands to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Green false hellebore (Veratrum viride)
Distribution: Widely distributed throughout the forest and mountainous areas of Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the northern Rocky Mountains; eastern North America from Alabama to Newfoundland.
Habitat: Moist meadows and woodlands, lowlands to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pale false manna grass (Torreyochloa pallida)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Lowland to subalpine lake and stream margins, bogs, swamps, and marshes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Narrow false oat (Trisetum spicatum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest throughout Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, further east to the Great Lakes region and eastern North America.
Habitat: Montane forests to alpine slopes in rocky, dry or moist areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tall false oat (Trisetum canescens)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist to dry meadows and forest, stream banks, springs, and rocky slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Willamette false rue-anemone (Enemion hallii)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Lewis and Thurston counties, south to Marion County, Oregon
Habitat: Moist woods and streambanks at low elevations
Origin: Native
Flowers: June - July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Large false Solomon's seal (Maianthemum racemosum)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains, also from the central U.S. to the Atlantic Coast of eastern North America.
Habitat: Open woodlands, forest edge, moist meadow and forest openings from sea level to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hoary false-yarrow (Chaenactis douglasii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert flats and slopes, ponderosa pine forest openings, and meadows near the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Okanogan fameflower (Phemeranthus sediformis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in north-central Washington; southern British Columbia to northern Washington.
Habitat: Rocky, exposed slopes and ledges at lower elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spinescent fameflower (Phemeranthus spinescens)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; north-central Washington to north-central Oregon.
Habitat: Rocky, basaltic outcrops and sagebrush scabland.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spiny fameflower (Phemeranthus spinescens)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; north-central Washington to north-central Oregon.
Habitat: Rocky, basaltic outcrops and sagebrush scabland.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Fan-foil (Potentilla flabellifolia)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California and Nevada, east to Alberta, Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Common in moist meadows from middle to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Fanweed (Thlaspi arvense)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Weed of waste ground, low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Fanwort (Cabomba caroliniana)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest, where only known from Clark County. southwestern Washington to California; native to southeastern and eastern U.S.
Habitat: Ponds and irrigation ditches.
Origin: Introduced from southeastern and eastern U.S.
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Arewell-to-spring (Clarkia amoena)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Dry, open to wooded areas, at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Farewell-to-spring (Clarkia amoena)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Dry, open to wooded areas, at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Coast fawn-lily (Erythronium revolutum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to northwest California.
Habitat: Along river banks and the edge of woods, in open or in moderate shade.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Giant fawn-lily (Erythronium oregonum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in the Puget Sound lowlands and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Prairies, rocky balds, moist woods; at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Idaho fawn-lily (Erythronium idahoense)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in eastern Washington; eastern Washington to adjacent Idaho and western Montana.
Habitat: Grasslands and ponderosa pine forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mahogany fawn-lily (Erythronium revolutum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to northwest California.
Habitat: Along river banks and the edge of woods, in open or in moderate shade.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Olympic fawn-lily (Erythronium quinaultense)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest on the Olympic Peninsula in Washington, where endemic to Grays Harbor and Jefferson counties.
Habitat: Coniferous forest understory and edge, and moist slopes at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pink fawn-lily (Erythronium revolutum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to northwest California.
Habitat: Along river banks and the edge of woods, in open or in moderate shade.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Yellow fawn-lily (Erythronium grandiflorum)
Distribution: Widely distributed in mountainous and forested areas across Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Balds and forest openings from sea level to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Parrot's feather (Myriophyllum aquaticum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California and Idaho, east across the southwest to central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Ponds and slow-moving streams.
Origin: Introduced from South America
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Water feather (Myriophyllum aquaticum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California and Idaho, east across the southwest to central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Ponds and slow-moving streams.
Origin: Introduced from South America
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western featherbells (Anticlea occidentalis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Wet cliffs, moist meadows and scree, mostly at middle to high elevations, but down to near sea level in the Olympic Peninsula and the Columbia River Gorge.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Featherfew (Tanacetum parthenium)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Nevada, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other distrubed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-November
Growth Duration: Perennial
Felonwort (Solanum dulcamara)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Thickets, clearings and open woods, usually in moist soil
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Felwort (Swertia perennis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in west-central Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; circumboreal.
Habitat: Streambanks, wet meadows and other moist places, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sweet fennel (Foeniculum vulgare)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in lowland areas in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, meadows, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from the Mediterranean region
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Bladder fern (Cystopteris fragilis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across the northern half of North America to the Atlantic Coast; circumboreal.
Habitat: Moist to moderately dry, often rocky places, lowlands to above timberline
Origin: Native
Spores: April-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bracken fern (Pteridium aquilinum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast; circumboreal.
Habitat: Common in moist to dry woods, open slopes and disturbed sites
Origin: Native
Spores: Spores April-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Brittle fern (Cystopteris fragilis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across the northern half of North America to the Atlantic Coast; circumboreal.
Habitat: Moist to moderately dry, often rocky places, lowlands to above timberline
Origin: Native
Spores: April-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Coastal fern (Dryopteris arguta)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to Baja California, east to Arizona, also in north-central Idaho.
Habitat: Mostly in the woods, but occasionally in more open areas.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Common sword fern (Polystichum munitum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Mexico, east to Montana, and disjunct in South Dakota.
Habitat: Moist coniferous woods, in open to deep shade; from sea-level to midmontane.
Origin: Native
Spores: Spores year-round on fronds
Growth Duration: Perennial
Deer fern (Struthiopteris spicant)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, also from southeastern British Columbia to southern Idaho.
Habitat: Forest understory, sometimes where moist, sea level to mid-elevations.
Origin: Native
Spores: April-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Duckweed fern (Azolla filiculoides)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Idaho and western Montana.
Habitat: Ponds, backwaters, slow-moving streams.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Annual
Fragile fern (Cystopteris fragilis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across the northern half of North America to the Atlantic Coast; circumboreal.
Habitat: Moist to moderately dry, often rocky places, lowlands to above timberline
Origin: Native
Spores: April-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Giant chain fern (Woodwardia fimbriata)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washignton; Osouthern Vancouver Island to California, also in Nevada and Arizona.
Habitat: Mixed conifer and mixed conifer-hardwood forests, always where moist such as stream banks, springs, and seepy rocky outcrops.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Gold fern (Pentagramma triangularis)
Distribution: Occurring mostly west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Vancouver Island to Baja California, east to southwestern Washington and adjacent Idaho.
Habitat: Rock crevices and open, rocky slopes in the valleys and foothills
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Gold-back fern (Pentagramma triangularis)
Distribution: Occurring mostly west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Vancouver Island to Baja California, east to southwestern Washington and adjacent Idaho.
Habitat: Rock crevices and open, rocky slopes in the valleys and foothills
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hidden sword fern (Polystichum lemmonii × Polystichum munitum)
Origin: Native
Holly fern (Polystichum kruckebergii)
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympics and Cascades mountains in Washington; southeast Alaska to California, east to Montana, Idaho, Nevada and Utah.
Habitat: Open slopes, typically among rocks; tolerant of serpentine.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hybrid holly fern (Polystichum kruckebergii × Polystichum munitum)
Origin: Native
Hybrid oak fern (Gymnocarpium ×brittonianum)
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hybrid sword fern (Polystichum munitum × Polystichum scopulinum)
Origin: Native
Kruckeberg's sword fern fern (Polystichum kruckebergii)
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympics and Cascades mountains in Washington; southeast Alaska to California, east to Montana, Idaho, Nevada and Utah.
Habitat: Open slopes, typically among rocks; tolerant of serpentine.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Large mosquito fern (Azolla filiculoides)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Idaho and western Montana.
Habitat: Ponds, backwaters, slow-moving streams.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Annual
Lemmon's holly fern (Polystichum lemmonii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in the northern half of Washington, southern British Columbia to northern California.
Habitat: Open, rocky slopes near timberline in the mountains, chiefly on serpentine.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Licorice fern (Polypodium glycyrrhiza)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Moist banks and rocks, tree trunks and logs, at low elevations
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Maidenhair fern (Adiantum aleuticum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east sporadically to the Rocky Mountains, also in the Great Lakes region and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Moist woods and streambanks, from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Male fern (Dryopteris filix-mas)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America; circumboreal.
Habitat: Moist shaded talus and rocky stream banks, lowland to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Spores: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Marginal wood fern (Dryopteris arguta)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to Baja California, east to Arizona, also in north-central Idaho.
Habitat: Mostly in the woods, but occasionally in more open areas.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mexican waterfern fern (Azolla microphylla)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Texas.
Habitat: Ponds and backwaters, mostly at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Mosquito fern (Azolla microphylla)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Texas.
Habitat: Ponds and backwaters, mostly at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Mountain fern (Oreopteris quelpartensis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to the Cascades of central Washington; also in eastern Asia.
Habitat: Wet cliffs and rocky slopes, sea level to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mountain fern (Polystichum lonchitis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, also in the Great Lakes region and northeastern North America; Greenland.
Habitat: Talus slopes and cliff crevices, occasionally in coniferous forests, middle to high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mountain holly fern (Polystichum scopulinum)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Open slopes, typically associated with rock outcroppings and crevices; tolerant of serpentine.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern fern (Dryopteris expansa)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Moist to wet woods and streambanks.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern fern (Phegopteris connectilis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washington and norttheastern Oregon, east across the northern U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast; circumboreal.
Habitat: Cliff crevices and moist banks in wooded regions.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern holly fern (Polystichum lonchitis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, also in the Great Lakes region and northeastern North America; Greenland.
Habitat: Talus slopes and cliff crevices, occasionally in coniferous forests, middle to high elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern oak fern (Gymnocarpium dryopteris)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; Alaska to northeastern Washington, east across Canada and the northern U.S., with disjunct populations scattered throughout western North America.
Habitat: Forest understory, often where moist
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Queen's-veil maiden fern (Oreopteris quelpartensis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to the Cascades of central Washington; also in eastern Asia.
Habitat: Wet cliffs and rocky slopes, sea level to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rattlesnake fern (Botrypus virginianus)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest and in the northeastern counties in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast; also in Eurasia.
Habitat: Moist woods and thickets, seldom in meadows, from valleys to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rock sword fern (Polystichum scopulinum)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Open slopes, typically associated with rock outcroppings and crevices; tolerant of serpentine.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Serpentine holly fern (Polystichum lemmonii × Polystichum scopulinum)
Origin: Native
Shasta fern (Polystichum lemmonii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in the northern half of Washington, southern British Columbia to northern California.
Habitat: Open, rocky slopes near timberline in the mountains, chiefly on serpentine.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Shield fern (Dryopteris cristata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; Alaska to Idaho, east across northern U.S. and Canada to eastern North America; also in Europe.
Habitat: Moist woods and thickets at middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sword fern (Polystichum munitum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Mexico, east to Montana, and disjunct in South Dakota.
Habitat: Moist coniferous woods, in open to deep shade; from sea-level to midmontane.
Origin: Native
Spores: Spores year-round on fronds
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western fern (Polystichum munitum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Mexico, east to Montana, and disjunct in South Dakota.
Habitat: Moist coniferous woods, in open to deep shade; from sea-level to midmontane.
Origin: Native
Spores: Spores year-round on fronds
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wright's filmy fern (Hymenophyllum wrightii)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the coast of the Olympic Peninsula; coastal southeast Alaska to northwestern Washington.
Habitat: Gametophytes on wet rock or epiphytic on bark and decaying wood of large conifers along the coast.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Alpine fescue (Festuca brachyphylla)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, and northeastern North America; circumboreal.
Habitat: Open rocky places in the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bearded fescue (Festuca subulata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the northern Great Plains and Colorado.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bluebunch fescue (Festuca idahoensis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Grasslands and sagebrush desert to dry mountain slopes, occasionally to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Brome fescue (Vulpia bromoides)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, southern Great Plains, and eastern North America.
Habitat: From ocean beaches and salt marshes to sagebrush deserts.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Crinkle-awn fescue (Festuca subuliflora)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Shady sites in dry to moist, lowland to montane forest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Fine-leaf sheep fescue (Festuca filiformis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to Oregon; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Sand dunes, quarries, roadsides, lawns.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Green-leaf fescue (Festuca viridula)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta and Montana.
Habitat: Subalpine slopes, rock slides, and meadows to well above timberline.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hard fescue (Festuca trachyphylla)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Idaho fescue (Festuca idahoensis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Grasslands and sagebrush desert to dry mountain slopes, occasionally to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Meadow fescue (Schedonorus pratensis)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered localities on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Meadows, pastures, roadsides, and other disturbed areas, often where moist
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Prairie fescue (Festuca campestris)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Idaho, Montana, and the northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Upland prairies, montane and subalpine grasslands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rattail fescue (Vulpia myuros)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Balds, open slopes, grasslands, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Red fescue (Festuca rubra)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast; circumboreal.
Habitat: Grasslands, balds, coastal bluffs, fields, meadows, and roadsides.
Origin: Both native and introduced
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rocky Mountain fescue (Festuca saximontana)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America, also in Far East Russia.
Habitat: Montane and subalpine meadows and open forest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Roemer's fescue (Festuca roemeri)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Meadows, grasslands, balds and forest openings mostly at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Six–weeks fescue (Vulpia octoflora)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open, often disturbed areas, lowland to montane.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Small fescue (Vulpia microstachys)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Balds, prairies, sagebrush desert, and disturbed areas, lowland to montane.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Meadowlands, fallow fields an ditch banks.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Valais fescue (Festuca valesiaca)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Roadsides, pastures, and grasslands.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Washington fescue (Festuca washingtonica)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Southern British Columbia Washington.
Habitat: Well-drained slopes in sagebrush and open pine forest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western fescue (Festuca occidentalis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to southwestern Alberta and Wyoming; disjunct in the Great Lakes area.
Habitat: Forest understory, edges, and openings to rocky slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Nevada, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other distrubed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-November
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bristly fiddleneck (Amsinckia tessellata)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho, south to New Mexico.
Habitat: Roadsides and dry, open slopes and flats, often in disturbed soil.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Bugloss fiddleneck (Amsinckia lycopsoides)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Great Plains, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, meadows, grassy slopes, ponderosa pine forest openings, and other open areas from sagebrush desert into the mountains, often associated with some type of disturbance .
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Fireweed fiddleneck (Amsinckia intermedia)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Baja California, Mexico, east to Idaho, Utah, Arizona, and west Texas.
Habitat: Balds, meadows, prairies, roadsides, and other open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Harvest fiddleneck (Amsinckia menziesii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Open, dry foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Harvest fiddleneck (Amsinckia retrorsa)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Utah.
Habitat: Relatively dry and open areas at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Rancher's fiddleneck (Amsinckia intermedia)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Baja California, Mexico, east to Idaho, Utah, Arizona, and west Texas.
Habitat: Balds, meadows, prairies, roadsides, and other open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Rigid fiddleneck (Amsinckia menziesii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Open, dry foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Rigid fiddleneck (Amsinckia retrorsa)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Utah.
Habitat: Relatively dry and open areas at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Seaside fiddleneck (Amsinckia spectabilis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Coastal dunes or sandy bluffs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Tarweed fiddleneck (Amsinckia lycopsoides)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Great Plains, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, meadows, grassy slopes, ponderosa pine forest openings, and other open areas from sagebrush desert into the mountains, often associated with some type of disturbance .
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Tessellate fiddleneck (Amsinckia tessellata)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho, south to New Mexico.
Habitat: Roadsides and dry, open slopes and flats, often in disturbed soil.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Austrian yellowcress field-cress (Rorippa austriaca)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, eastward in scattered locations to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed areas and waste ground.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Field-cress (Rorippa austriaca)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, eastward in scattered locations to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed areas and waste ground.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Blue field-madder (Sherardia arvensis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Nevada; also in south-central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Weed of prairies, meadows, and other open, disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Mediterranean
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
California figwort (Scrophularia californica)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington, chiefly in coastal counties; coastal southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Forest margins, prairies, and meadows at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lance-leaf figwort (Scrophularia lanceolata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across much of the U.S. and all of Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist forest edges and openings, and meadows at low elevations, but not along the coast.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Oregon figwort (Scrophularia californica)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington, chiefly in coastal counties; coastal southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Forest margins, prairies, and meadows at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Field filago (Filago arvensis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the northern Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, and Great Lakes region
Habitat: Dry meadows, fields, roadsides, and other disturbed, open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
German filago (Filago vulgaris)
Distribution: Known from lowland northwestern Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, also in the eastern U.S.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Common filbert (Corylus avellana)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, also known from western Idaho.
Habitat: Abandoned plantings, roadsides, waste sites, forest edge.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: January-April
Growth Duration: Perennial
Alpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Subalpine to alpine slopes, where commonly in krumholtz form.
Origin: Native
Cones: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Grand fir (Abies grandis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Vancouver Island, British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Coniferous forests, from sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Cones: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Noble fir (Abies procera)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; northern Washington to the Siskiyou Mountains in northern California.
Habitat: Deep forests where there is sufficient moisture, moderate to fairly high elevations.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pacific silver fir (Abies amabilis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to northern California.
Habitat: Mostly at 1000-4000 feet elevation in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Subalpine to alpine slopes, where commonly in krumholtz form.
Origin: Native
Cones: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Chinese firethorn (Pyracantha fortuneana)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; southern British Columbia to California and Arizona, also in the southern and southeastern U.S.
Habitat: Disturbed, open areas where escaped from cultivation through bird-dispersal.
Origin: Introduced from China
Flowers: January-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Firethorn (Pyracantha coccinea)
Distribution: O Occurring in scattered locations across Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to the Atlantic Coast along the southern half of the U.S.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, wastelots, and forest margins often near towns and cities where escaped from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from western Asia
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Scarlet firethorn (Pyracantha coccinea)
Distribution: O Occurring in scattered locations across Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to the Atlantic Coast along the southern half of the U.S.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, wastelots, and forest margins often near towns and cities where escaped from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from western Asia
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Alpine fireweed (Chamaenerion latifolium)
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic Mountains and on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern Canada; circumboreal.
Habitat: Subalpine to alpine river bars, gravelly stream banks, snowmelt areas, and seasonally drier slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Broad-leaf fireweed (Chamaenerion latifolium)
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic Mountains and on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern Canada; circumboreal.
Habitat: Subalpine to alpine river bars, gravelly stream banks, snowmelt areas, and seasonally drier slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Fireweed (Chamaenerion angustifolium)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast; circumboreal.
Habitat: Open areas, sea level to subalpine, especially in burned and other naturally disturbed areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rancher's fireweed (Amsinckia menziesii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Open, dry foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Alpine firmoss (Huperzia continentalis)
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic Mountains and Cascade Range in Washington; Alaska to Washington, east to Montana; also in Wyoming and Colorado, scattered across northern Canada and on Greenland.
Habitat: Subalpine and alpine meadows, heath, and rocky slopes. Usually at high elevations.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Fissurewort (Sandbergia whitedii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Washington.
Habitat: Dry scabland, forest openings, talus slopes and alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Whited's halimolobos fissurewort (Sandbergia whitedii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Washington.
Habitat: Dry scabland, forest openings, talus slopes and alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Oregon flag (Iris tenax)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Prairies, meadows, open oak and coniferous forests, at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sweet flag (Acorus calamus)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho, also widespread in central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Wetlands, pond shores, and streambanks.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western blue flag (Iris missouriensis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington, but also known from the Puget Sound area; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Common in vernally moist meadows, especially in sagebrush and Ponderosa pine forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Flatpod (Idahoa scapigera)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Idaho, and Nevada.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-April
Growth Duration: Annual
Awned flatsedge (Cyperus squarrosus)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Lake and pond shores, banks of slow moving streams and rivers, and other wet, open areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Brown flatsedge (Cyperus fuscus)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern Washington to California, east to Nevada; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Damp, silty riverbanks.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
False flatsedge (Cyperus strigosus)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest and along the Columbia River in Washington; Washington to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet places, along the banks of large streams, in the valleys and lowlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Great Plains flatsedge (Cyperus lupulinus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southeastern Washington; disjunct in southeastern Washington and adjacent Oregon and Idaho, otherwise from U.S. Great Plains to eastern Canada and Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Cobble riverbanks and rocky canyon slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Redroot flatsedge (Cyperus erythrorhizos)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Pond and lake shores, streambanks, seeps, vernal pools, and ditches at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Sand flatsedge (Cyperus schweinitzii)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Sandy lakeshores and riverbanks.
Origin: Native east Cascades, introduced in Seattle, WA
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sharp-pointed flatsedge (Cyperus acuminatus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Shores and vernal pools.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Shining flatsedge (Cyperus bipartitus)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east across most of the U.S. to eastern Canada and the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Streambanks and other wet places in the valleys and lowlands; tolerant of alkali.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Straw-colored flatsedge (Cyperus strigosus)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest and along the Columbia River in Washington; Washington to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet places, along the banks of large streams, in the valleys and lowlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tall flatsedge (Cyperus eragrostis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California, also along the southern and eastern U.S. coast.
Habitat: Damp to wet shores, ditches, roadsides, and other disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from South America
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Taper-tip flatsedge (Cyperus acuminatus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Shores and vernal pools.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Umbrella flatsedge (Cyperus diandrus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southern Washington; native to central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Emergent shorelines in sandy, peaty, or slightly brackish areas (though seldom where disturbed).
Origin: Introduced from eastern and central North America
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Blue garden flax (Linum perenne)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hairy false flax (Camelina microcarpa)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Sagebrush, roadsides, ponderosa pine forest openings, and disturbed sites in seasonally moist areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Littlepod false flax (Camelina microcarpa)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Sagebrush, roadsides, ponderosa pine forest openings, and disturbed sites in seasonally moist areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Wild blue flax (Linum lewisii)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains and eastern Canada.
Habitat: Dry, open areas from prairies to alpine ridges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Alice's fleabane (Erigeron aliceae)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in the Olympic Mountains and southward in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Moist to fairly dry, sandy, open areas at middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Annual fleabane (Erigeron annuus)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Utah, not recorded for Montana, also from Great Plains east to the Atlantic.
Habitat: Moist, disturbed areas from the lowlands to middle elevations.
Origin: Native? Introduced in OR, status as a native in BC uncertain
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Basalt fleabane (Erigeron basalticus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest where endemic to Kittitas and Yakima counties in Washington.
Habitat: Cliff crevices in rocky canyons.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bitter fleabane (Erigeron acris)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America; circumboreal.
Habitat: Meadows, forest openings, and open slopes from middle elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Bloomer's fleabane (Erigeron bloomeri)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central and southeastern Washington; central Washington to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Dry, open, rocky areas at low to moderate elevations
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Branched fleabane (Erigeron strigosus)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, thickets, forest edge, and other open, disturbed areas from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
California rayless fleabane (Erigeron inornatus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Nevada.
Habitat: Dry slopes and forest openings, often where sandy or rocky.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Canadian fleabane (Conyza canadensis)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, balds, prairies, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Cushion fleabane (Erigeron poliospermus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to western Idaho.
Habitat: Dry, open, typically rocky areas, often with sagebrush.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Daisy fleabane (Erigeron strigosus)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, thickets, forest edge, and other open, disturbed areas from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Davis's fleabane (Erigeron davisii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southeastern Washington; southeastern Washington to northeastern Oregon and adjacent Idaho.
Habitat: Rocky ridges and slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dwarf mountain fleabane (Erigeron compositus)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the northern Great Plains, also in northern and eastern Canada.
Habitat: Sandy riverbanks at low elevations to rocky outcrops at mid- to high elevation in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dwarf yellow fleabane (Erigeron chrysopsidis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Shrub-steppe to open slopes of forests at middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Eastern daisy fleabane (Erigeron annuus)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Utah, not recorded for Montana, also from Great Plains east to the Atlantic.
Habitat: Moist, disturbed areas from the lowlands to middle elevations.
Origin: Native? Introduced in OR, status as a native in BC uncertain
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Eastwood's fleabane (Erigeron aliceae)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in the Olympic Mountains and southward in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Moist to fairly dry, sandy, open areas at middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Eaton's fleabane (Erigeron eatonii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central and southeastern Washington; central Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Grasslands, sagebrush, dry slopes, and forest openings at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Fernleaf fleabane (Erigeron compositus)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the northern Great Plains, also in northern and eastern Canada.
Habitat: Sandy riverbanks at low elevations to rocky outcrops at mid- to high elevation in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Flett's fleabane (Erigeron flettii)
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic Mountains in Washington, where endemic.
Habitat: Cliffs and other rocky places in the subalpine and alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Foothill fleabane (Erigeron corymbosus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to eastern Oregon, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Utah.
Habitat: Open, usually dry places, often among sagebrush.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Glacier fleabane (Erigeron glacialis)
Distribution: Widely distributed in the mountains throughout Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist, open areas at mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Golden fleabane (Erigeron aureus)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Washington, east to Alberta.
Habitat: Exposed rocky areas, cliffs, and ridges in subalpine to alpine areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August.
Growth Duration: Perennial
Gorge fleabane (Erigeron oreganus)
Distribution: Occurring in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Columbia River Gorge in Washington to adjacent Gorge area in Oregon.
Habitat: Moist shady cliffs and ledges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Howell's fleabane (Erigeron howellii)
Distribution: Known only from Skamania County in Washington; Skamania County, WA to Clackamas and Multnomah counties in Oregon.
Habitat: Moist, rocky places in the lowlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Leiberg's fleabane (Erigeron leibergii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in In the Wenatchee Mountains of Okanogan, Chelan and Kittitas counties; British Columbia to Washington.
Habitat: Cliffs and rocky places at moderate to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lineleaf fleabane (Erigeron linearis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Utah.
Habitat: Dry, open, often rocky areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Longleaf fleabane (Erigeron corymbosus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to eastern Oregon, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Utah.
Habitat: Open, usually dry places, often among sagebrush.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Olympic Mt. fleabane (Erigeron flettii)
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic Mountains in Washington, where endemic.
Habitat: Cliffs and other rocky places in the subalpine and alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Oregon fleabane (Erigeron oreganus)
Distribution: Occurring in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Columbia River Gorge in Washington to adjacent Gorge area in Oregon.
Habitat: Moist shady cliffs and ledges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Peck's threadleaf fleabane (Erigeron filifolius)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Idaho, and Utah.
Habitat: Sagebrush plains, dry slopes, and grasslands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Philadelphia fleabane (Erigeron philadelphicus)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist, open forests at low to mid-elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Piper's fleabane (Erigeron piperianus)
Distribution: Endemic to Washington, where occurring east of the Cascades crest from north-central to south-central Washington.
Habitat: Dry, open places, often in sandy soil among sagebrush.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Salish fleabane (Erigeron salishii)
Distribution: Ocurring east of the Cascades crest in the North and Central Cascade Mountains in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to central Washington.
Habitat: Cliffs, ridges, ledges and gravelly slopes at mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Scabland fleabane (Erigeron bloomeri)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central and southeastern Washington; central Washington to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Dry, open, rocky areas at low to moderate elevations
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Shaggy fleabane (Erigeron pumilus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Open places in the foothills, valleys and plains, often among sagebrush.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Short-rayed fleabane (Erigeron lonchophyllus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern Canada.
Habitat: Streambanks, bogs, ponds, wet meadows, ditches, gravelly places along roads at middle to high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Showy fleabane (Erigeron speciosus)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, Nevada, and Arizona, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Prairies and forest openings from the lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Snake River fleabane (Erigeron disparipilus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the Snake River area in southeastern Washington; southeastern Washington to southeastern Oregon, east to southwestern Idaho.
Habitat: Dry, rocky hillsides at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spear-leaved fleabane (Erigeron lonchophyllus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern Canada.
Habitat: Streambanks, bogs, ponds, wet meadows, ditches, gravelly places along roads at middle to high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Splendid fleabane (Erigeron speciosus)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, Nevada, and Arizona, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Prairies and forest openings from the lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Star peak fleabane (Erigeron salishii)
Distribution: Ocurring east of the Cascades crest in the North and Central Cascade Mountains in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to central Washington.
Habitat: Cliffs, ridges, ledges and gravelly slopes at mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Swamp fleabane (Erigeron elatus)
Distribution: Reported east of the Cascades crest in north-central Washington; Alaska to Washington, east across Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet meadows, edges of ponds, and forested wetlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sweet scabrous fleabane (Erigeron annuus)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Utah, not recorded for Montana, also from Great Plains east to the Atlantic.
Habitat: Moist, disturbed areas from the lowlands to middle elevations.
Origin: Native? Introduced in OR, status as a native in BC uncertain
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Threadleaf fleabane (Erigeron filifolius)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Idaho, and Utah.
Habitat: Sagebrush plains, dry slopes, and grasslands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Three-veined fleabane (Erigeron subtrinervis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Washington, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moderately dry, open places at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Trifid mountain fleabane (Erigeron compositus)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the northern Great Plains, also in northern and eastern Canada.
Habitat: Sandy riverbanks at low elevations to rocky outcrops at mid- to high elevation in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: May - August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tufted fleabane (Erigeron caespitosus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washington, Idaho, Utah, and Arizona, east to the northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Dry, open, and often rocky places in sagebrush
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wandering fleabane (Erigeron peregrinus)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest on the Olympic Peninsula and in the North Cascades; Alaska to Washington, east to Alberta.
Habitat: Low elevation bogs and wetlands, and subalpine and alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
White cushion fleabane (Erigeron disparipilus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the Snake River area in southeastern Washington; southeastern Washington to southeastern Oregon, east to southwestern Idaho.
Habitat: Dry, rocky hillsides at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Alpine fleeceflower (Aconogonon phytolaccifolium)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho, Montana, and Nevada.
Habitat: Subalpine to alpine ridges, meadows and talus slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bukhara fleeceflower (Fallopia baldschuanica)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to Oregon, east to Idaho, also in scattered locations across North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, ditches, embankments, forest edge, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from central Asia
Flowers: Aug.-Sept.
Growth Duration: Perennial
Newberry's fleeceflower (Aconogonon davisiae)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Slopes and ridges in the subalpine and alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Chinese fleecevine (Fallopia baldschuanica)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to Oregon, east to Idaho, also in scattered locations across North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, ditches, embankments, forest edge, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from central Asia
Flowers: Aug.-Sept.
Growth Duration: Perennial
Flixweed (Descurainia sophia)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Weed of dry waste ground and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Yellow floatingheart (Nymphoides peltata)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, also from Arizona and Texas northeastward to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Reservoirs, lakes, ponds, and slow-moving streams.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Three-leaf foamflower (Tiarella trifoliata)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Moist woods and stream banks, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Fool's-onion (Triteleia hyacinthina)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Sagebrush deserts and grassy, often rocky areas from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hare's foot (Trifolium arvense)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, further eastward across the northern U.S. and southern Great Plains and Canada to eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Footsteps-of-spring (Sanicula arctopoides)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the coast in Washington; Vancouver Island, B.C. south along the coast to California.
Habitat: Maritime species of coastal bluffs, meadows, and balds.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Alpine forget-me-not (Eritrichium argenteum)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where known only from Chelan County. Washington to Oregon, east to Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, Colorado, and New Mexico.
Habitat: Coarse, rocky soils of alpine slopes and summits.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bay forget-me-not (Myosotis laxa)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Colombia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; also in the eastern half of North America.
Habitat: In moist soil and shallow water, at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Common forget-me-not (Myosotis scorpioides)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet areas from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Early forget-me-not (Myosotis ramosissima)
Distribution: Occurring in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Balds, prairies, grassy embankments, roadsides, and other disturbed open places at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe and Mediterranean region
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Early forget-me-not (Myosotis verna)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington British Columbia to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open, wet to dry places in foothills and lowlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Field forget-me-not (Myosotis arvensis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to Oregon, east across the northern half of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and forest openings, typically associated with disturbance.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Meadow forget-me-not (Hackelia micrantha)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist, open hillsides seasonally wet forest openings, and riparian corridors from montane to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Small forget-me-not (Myosotis laxa)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Colombia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; also in the eastern half of North America.
Habitat: In moist soil and shallow water, at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Spring forget-me-not (Myosotis verna)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington British Columbia to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open, wet to dry places in foothills and lowlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
True forget-me-not (Myosotis scorpioides)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet areas from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Water forget-me-not (Myosotis scorpioides)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wet areas from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Woodland forget-me-not (Myosotis sylvatica)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to Oregon.
Habitat: Roadsides and moist woods at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Yellow and blue forget-me-not (Myosotis discolor)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Nevada; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, wastelots, and other dry to moist open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Four-o'clock (Mirabilis nyctaginea)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Washington, east to Motana; native to central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas of dry valleys and plains.
Origin: Introduced from east of the Rocky Mountains
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Heartleaf umbrellawort four-o'clock (Mirabilis nyctaginea)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Washington, east to Motana; native to central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas of dry valleys and plains.
Origin: Introduced from east of the Rocky Mountains
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Four-spot (Clarkia quadrivulnera)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest and along the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Grasslands and meadows at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Purple foxglove (Digitalis purpurea)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, also from the Great Lakes region east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, forest edge, meadows, wastelots, and other disturbed partially shaded to sunny areas at low to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Biennial
Chinese foxtail (Setaria faberi)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from China
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Green foxtail (Setaria viridis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Little foxtail (Alopecurus aequalis)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Shores, riverbanks, vernal pools, sloughs, wet meadows, and seeps, often submersed.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Short-awn foxtail (Alopecurus aequalis)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Shores, riverbanks, vernal pools, sloughs, wet meadows, and seeps, often submersed.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Water foxtail (Alopecurus geniculatus)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Atlantic Coast in Canada.
Habitat: Wet places, often in standing water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Yellow foxtail (Setaria pumila)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Foxtail millet (Setaria italica)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from China
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Clustered frasera (Frasera fastigiata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in eastern and southeastern Washington; southeastern Washington to adjacent Oregon, east to northeast Idaho.
Habitat: Moist woods and meadowlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Giant frasera (Frasera speciosa)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Slopes, forest openings, and meadows from middle elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
White-stemmed frasera (Frasera albicaulis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Montana and Nevada.
Habitat: Low plains to open areas in the mountains at moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Fragrant fringecup (Tellima grandiflora)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington, but also in northeastern Washington and in the Columbia River Gorge; Alaska to California, east to northern Idaho and western Montana.
Habitat: Common in damp woods, forest edges, and along streams from sea level to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Fringecup (Tellima grandiflora)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington, but also in northeastern Washington and in the Columbia River Gorge; Alaska to California, east to northern Idaho and western Montana.
Habitat: Common in damp woods, forest edges, and along streams from sea level to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sand fringepod (Thysanocarpus curvipes)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho, Colorado, and New Mexico.
Habitat: Uncommon on dry, open hillsides and borders of woodlands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Yellow fritillary (Fritillaria pudica)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to California and Nevada, east to Montana and Utah.
Habitat: Shrub-steppe to mixed coniferous forests, from low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
European frog-bit (Hydrocharis morsus-ranae)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington, where known from Snohomish County; Washington and Quebec, Canada.
Habitat: Ponds and lakes at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Smooth frogbit (Limnobium laevigatum)
Distribution: Known from Pacific County in Washington; also known from California and the eastern U.S.
Habitat: Lowland ponds, where found floating on water\'s surface.
Origin: Introduced from the Carribean and South America
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Scouler's fumewort (Corydalis scouleri)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon.
Habitat: Moist soil in shade, low elevations, from the coast to the foothills
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Common fumitory (Fumaria muralis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to Washington.
Habitat: Forest edge, roadsides, sidewalk cracks, wastelots, and other disturbed sites.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Common fumitory (Fumaria officinalis)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed soil and waste places.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Few-flower fumitory (Fumaria reuteri)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington. currently known from Washington only.
Habitat: Roadsides, ditches, wastelots, sidewalk cracks, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Martin's fumitory (Fumaria reuteri)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington. currently known from Washington only.
Habitat: Roadsides, ditches, wastelots, sidewalk cracks, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wall fumitory (Fumaria muralis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to Washington.
Habitat: Forest edge, roadsides, sidewalk cracks, wastelots, and other disturbed sites.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial