Vascular Plants

Includes all flowering plants, conifers, ferns and fern-allies.

Browse by common name:
A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, W, X, Y, Z
Common names beginning with W:
Western wahoo (Euonymus occidentalis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in southwestern Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Moist woods at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Purple wake-robin (Trillium petiolatum)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to northeastern Oregon, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Stream banks, moist meadows, forest edge, and thickets at low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Thick-leaved wake-robin (Trillium crassifolium)
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western wake-robin (Trillium ovatum)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in forested areas in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Colorado.
Habitat: Open to dense moist forests at low to mid-elevations, often where boggy in the spring.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western wake-robin (Trillium stenosepalum)
Slimleaf wall rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, also in the southern and eastern U.S.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, roadsides.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Aegean wallflower (Erysimum cheiri)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, and in scattered locations in eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, often escaped from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pale wallflower (Erysimum occidentale)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; northern Washington to eastern Oregon.
Habitat: Sagebrush hills and valleys.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Sand dune wallflower (Erysimum capitatum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the southern Great Plains, and the midwestern and mid-Atlantic U.S.
Habitat: Often in sandy soil, from sagebrush desert plains to alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Sand-dwelling wallflower (Erysimum arenicola)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon.
Habitat: Open ridges and rock crevices, middle elevations to the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spreading wallflower (Erysimum repandum)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Wasteland in dry areas, plains and lower mountains.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Wallflower (Erysimum cheiri)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, and in scattered locations in eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, often escaped from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western wallflower (Erysimum occidentale)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; northern Washington to eastern Oregon.
Habitat: Sagebrush hills and valleys.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Wormseed wallflower (Erysimum cheiranthoides)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; widely distributed throughout much of North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas including fields, roadsides and wastelots, often where moist.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Black walnut (Juglans nigra)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Oregon, east to Idaho; native to central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed areas and riparian zones, typically in the vicinity of urbanized areas where escaped from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from central and eastern North America
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
English walnut (Juglans regia)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Idaho; also in the northeastern U.S.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas, where escaping from cultivation
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Japanese walnut (Juglans ailantifolia)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to the Columbia River Gorge in Washington, aslo in west-central Idaho.
Habitat: Riparian corridors, stream and river banks, thickets, and forest edge, at low elevations, often where distrubed.
Origin: Introduced from Japan
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern California walnut (Juglans hindsii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; south-central Washington to western Oregon; native to southwestern Oregon and California.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, homesteads, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from southwestern Oregon and California
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wapato (Sagittaria cuneata)
Distribution: East of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California, east to New York.
Habitat: Ponds, lake shores and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wapato (Sagittaria latifolia)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Vancouver Island, British Columbia to central California; central North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Ditches, ponds, lakes, swampy areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wart-removing-herb (Murdannia keisak)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in the Lower Columbia River corridor in Washington; southwestern Washington and adjacent northwestern Oregon; also in southeastern United States.
Habitat: Ditches, swales and swamps, often in water.
Origin: Introduced from Asia
Flowers: August-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lesser wartcress (Lepidium didymum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, Arizona, and Texas eastward and northward to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, gardens and wasteland.
Origin: Introduced from South America (or possibly Eurasia)
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Wartcress (Lepidium didymum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, Arizona, and Texas eastward and northward to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, gardens and wasteland.
Origin: Introduced from South America (or possibly Eurasia)
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Wartweed (Euphorbia helioscopia)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the northern Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains, Texas, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Weed of cultivated areas and abondoned gardens.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east along the southern U.S. to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Ponds, ditches, canals.
Origin: Introduced from tropical America
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
European water plantain (Alisma plantago-aquatica)
Distribution: Currently only known from King County in Washington; Alaska, where native, to British Columbia, where also introduced.
Habitat: Marshy areas, sometimes largely submerged.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia and Alaska
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Fringed water plantain (Damasonium californicum)
Distribution: Known only from Klickitat County in Washington; Washington to California, east to southwest Idaho and western Navada.
Habitat: Sloughs, ditches and marshy fields.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern water plantain (Alisma triviale)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Streams, lakes, ponds, wet ditches, wetlands, and cattle ponds.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Star water plantain (Damasonium californicum)
Distribution: Known only from Klickitat County in Washington; Washington to California, east to southwest Idaho and western Navada.
Habitat: Sloughs, ditches and marshy fields.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Water purslane (Ludwigia palustris)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and along the Columbia River in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to Idaho, east across the southwestern U.S. and southern Great Plains to eastern North America; also occurring in New World Tropics and Eurasia.
Habitat: Lakes, marshes, peatlands, shores, and wet meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pacific clover-fern water-clover (Marsilea oligospora)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Utah.
Habitat: Ponds and marshes, in wet depressions in sagebrush and less commonly on river margins.
Origin: Native
Spores: June-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Water-clover (Marsilea oligospora)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Utah.
Habitat: Ponds and marshes, in wet depressions in sagebrush and less commonly on river margins.
Origin: Native
Spores: June-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pacific water-dropwort (Oenanthe sarmentosa)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Low elevation wet areas, often in standing water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bulblet-bearing water-hemlock (Cicuta bulbifera)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to southern Oregon, east to Newfoundland and Virginia,
Habitat: Marshes, bogs, wet meadows and standing water, lowlands to mountain valleys.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bulbous water-hemlock (Cicuta bulbifera)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to southern Oregon, east to Newfoundland and Virginia,
Habitat: Marshes, bogs, wet meadows and standing water, lowlands to mountain valleys.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Douglas' water-hemlock (Cicuta douglasii)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Alberta, Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Marshes, ditches, and wet low places, from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spotted water-hemlock (Cicuta maculata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Marshes, ditches, and shorelines, from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Western water-hemlock (Cicuta douglasii)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Alberta, Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Marshes, ditches, and wet low places, from low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cut-leaf water-horehound (Lycopus americanus)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Nonalkaline wetland, riparian, pond and lakeshore sites at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
European water-horehound (Lycopus europaeus)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Wetlands and shorelines.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rough water-horehound (Lycopus asper)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east across much of North America to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Marshes and shores of streams and lakes; tolerant of alkali.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Disk water-hyssop (Bacopa rotundifolia)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in south-central Washington; south-central Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, native to central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Mudfalts, mud-bottomed pools, backchannels, and other slow-moving water of streams and rivers.
Origin: Introduced from central and eastern North America
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Round-leaved water-hyssop (Bacopa rotundifolia)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in south-central Washington; south-central Washington to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, native to central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Mudfalts, mud-bottomed pools, backchannels, and other slow-moving water of streams and rivers.
Origin: Introduced from central and eastern North America
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
American water-lily (Nymphaea odorata)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to central and eastern North America, where native.
Habitat: Lowland ponds and lakes.
Origin: Introduced from central and eastern North America
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Fragrant water-lily (Nymphaea odorata)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to central and eastern North America, where native.
Habitat: Lowland ponds and lakes.
Origin: Introduced from central and eastern North America
Flowers: June-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pygmy water-lily (Nymphaea tetragona)
Distribution: Known historically in Washington from west of the Cascades crest in Whatcom County; Alaska to British Columbia, east to Northwest Territories, Alberta, Montana, and Manitoba.
Habitat: Pond and lake margins, where emergent.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cutleaf water-milfoil (Myriophyllum pinnatum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington, where known only from Thurston County; southern British Columbia to Oregon, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Lakes, sloughs, ditches, slow streams.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Various-leaved water-milfoil (Myriophyllum heterophyllum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest, where known only from the Puget Sound lowlands; British Columbia to Washington, native from Texas to central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Lakes and ponds.
Origin: Introduced from central and eastern North America
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Canadian water-nymph (Najas canadensis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Great Lakes region and eastern North America.
Habitat: Freshwater and slightly brackish water habitats.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Guadalupe water-nymph (Najas guadalupensis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Baja California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fresh water habitats.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Nodding water-nymph (Najas flexilis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana, Colorado, Utah, and Arizona, east across the northern Great Plains to the Great Lakes region and eastern North America.
Habitat: Fresh to slightly brackish water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Slender water-nymph (Najas flexilis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana, Colorado, Utah, and Arizona, east across the northern Great Plains to the Great Lakes region and eastern North America.
Habitat: Fresh to slightly brackish water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Wavy water-nymph (Najas flexilis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana, Colorado, Utah, and Arizona, east across the northern Great Plains to the Great Lakes region and eastern North America.
Habitat: Fresh to slightly brackish water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Annual
American water-parsley (Oenanthe sarmentosa)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Low elevation wet areas, often in standing water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pacific water-parsley (Oenanthe sarmentosa)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California.
Habitat: Low elevation wet areas, often in standing water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hemlock water-parsnip (Sium suave)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Swampy places and shallow water of lakes, ponds, and backwater channels, from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mild water-pepper (Persicaria hydropiper)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Shores, swales, ditches, and disturbed ground.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Grass-leaved water-plantain (Alisma gramineum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Minnesota and Wisconsin.
Habitat: Marshy areas, often in standing water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Narrow-leaf water-plantain (Alisma gramineum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Minnesota and Wisconsin.
Habitat: Marshy areas, often in standing water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Autumn water-starwort (Callitriche hermaphroditica)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east across North America in scattered locations to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Sloughs and streams.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Different-leaved water-starwort (Callitriche heterophylla)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Sloughs and slow-moving, fresh water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Narrow-leaf water-starwort (Callitriche brutia)
Distribution: Reported for Washington, but no specimens seen; British Columbia to Oregon.
Habitat: Flowing streams or quiet waters.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern water-starwort (Callitriche hermaphroditica)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east across North America in scattered locations to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Sloughs and streams.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pond water-starwort (Callitriche stagnalis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: In streams, ponds, and ditches.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spring water-starwort (Callitriche palustris)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Sloughs and slow-moving fresh water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Vernal water-starwort (Callitriche palustris)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Sloughs and slow-moving fresh water.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Winged water-starwort (Callitriche marginata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Ponds, lakes, slow-moving streams.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Water-thyme (Hydrilla verticillata)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington, where known only from King County; Washington, California, and in the southern and eastern U.S.
Habitat: Ponds, lakes, and slow-moving streams at low elevation.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pacific watercarpet (Chrysosplenium glechomifolium)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to northwest California.
Habitat: Moist, usually swampy places, mostly at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Australian waterclover (Marsilea mutica)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered counties west of the Cascades crest in Washington; also known from California and the southeastern U.S.
Habitat: Lowland ponds in water to 1 meter deep.
Origin: Introduced from Australia
Spores: June-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Onerow watercress (Nasturtium microphyllum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming; also in the northeastern U.S.
Habitat: Shallow water, ditches, and marshy areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Watercress (Nasturtium officinale)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Riparian zones and other wet areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Ballhead waterleaf (Hydrophyllum capitatum)
Distribution: Occurring mostly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Moist, open slopes and woodlands, foothills to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Fendler's waterleaf (Hydrophyllum fendleri)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Utah.
Habitat: Thickets and moist open places, from lowlands to mid elevations in mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pacific waterleaf (Hydrophyllum tenuipes)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Forest understory and edge at low elevations, often where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Brazilian watermeal (Wolffia brasiliensis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California, also from the southern Great Plains east to the Atlantic Coast in the U.S.
Habitat: Ponds and standing water at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Columbian watermeal (Wolffia columbiana)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, Montana, and Colorado, and east from the Great Plains to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Ponds and standing water at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern watermeal (Wolffia borealis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, Montana, and Utah, also from the central U.S. east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Ponds and standing water at low elevations
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Watershield (Brasenia schreberi)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to much of Canada and the eastern United States.
Habitat: Shallow ponds and sluggish streams.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Brazilian waterweed (Egeria densa)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California, east across the southern half of the United States to the Atlantic.
Habitat: Ponds, lakes, and slow-moving water at low elevation.
Origin: Introduced from South America
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Canadian waterweed (Elodea canadensis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Common in ponds, lakes, streams, rivers, and slow-moving waters.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Common waterweed (Elodea canadensis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Common in ponds, lakes, streams, rivers, and slow-moving waters.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Nuttall's waterweed (Elodea nuttallii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California and Nevada, east to the Great Plains, midwestern U.S., and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Fresh to slightly brackish water of streams, rivers, lakes, ponds, and backwaters at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rocky Mountain waterweed (Elodea canadensis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Common in ponds, lakes, streams, rivers, and slow-moving waters.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
South American waterweed (Egeria densa)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California, east across the southern half of the United States to the Atlantic.
Habitat: Ponds, lakes, and slow-moving water at low elevation.
Origin: Introduced from South America
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Waterweed (Egeria densa)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California, east across the southern half of the United States to the Atlantic.
Habitat: Ponds, lakes, and slow-moving water at low elevation.
Origin: Introduced from South America
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western waterweed (Elodea nuttallii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California and Nevada, east to the Great Plains, midwestern U.S., and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Fresh to slightly brackish water of streams, rivers, lakes, ponds, and backwaters at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
California waterwort (Elatine californica)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Montana, Utah, and New Mexico.
Habitat: Pools, pond shores, and stream banks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Chilean waterwort (Elatine chilensis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Nevada, Arizona, and New Mexico.
Habitat: Muddy shores (fresh or tidal), shallow vernal pools, and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Pacific wax-myrtle (Morella californica)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the outer coast in Washington; coastal Vancouver Island, British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Hillsides and sandy areas near the coast.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wayfaring-tree (Viburnum lantana)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Washington and Montana, also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed thickets, riparian forest, and forest edge.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Prairie wedgescale (Sphenopholis obtusata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist soil to standing water, stream and lake margins to grasslands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June--July
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Slender wedgescale (Sphenopholis intermedia)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, Navada, and Arizona, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist soil areas, sometimes where disturbed.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Klamath weed (Hypericum perforatum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Noxious weed of fields, meadows, roadsides, forest edge, wastelots, and other disturbed areas from the lowlands to near subalpine.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pahute weed (Suaeda calceoliformis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains, and also along the coast of eastern North America.
Habitat: Open, moist to wet areas, typically where saline.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Pineapple weed (Matricaria discoidea)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsiides, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Poverty weed (Iva axillaris)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Dry, often alkaline places, in the valleys, plains and foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pygmy weed (Crassula connata)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington in San Juan County; British Columbia to California, east to Arizona and Texas.
Habitat: Sandy areas, paths and roadsides.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Rattlesnake weed (Daucus pusillus)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California, east across the southern U.S. to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Grassy balds, headlands, rocky outcroppings, and other to seasonally moist open areas at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Water pygmy weed (Crassula aquatica)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, and in the southeastern and northeastern regions of North America.
Habitat: Mud flats and vernal pools.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Weld (Reseda luteola)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California; scattered locations in central and eastern North America.
Habitat: Disturbed ground at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Biennial
Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Annual false wheatgrass (Eremopyrum triticeum)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Arizona, east to the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains.
Habitat: Dry wasteland, disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Arctic wheatgrass (Elymus violaceus)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains, east across Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: High montane to alpine rocks and grassland.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bearded wheatgrass (Elymus violaceus)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to the Rocky Mountains, east across Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: High montane to alpine rocks and grassland.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bluebunch wheatgrass (Pseudoroegneria spicata)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert and ponderosa pine forest openings, occasionally to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Dry, open areas where distiurbed; frequently planted for soil stabilization and forage.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Eurasian wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Disturbed areas including roadsides, wastelots, and agricultural fields.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Intermediate wheatgrass (Thinopyrum intermedium)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Siberian wheatgrass (Agropyron fragile)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; south-central British Columbia to southeastern Idaho.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Slender wheatgrass (Elymus trachycaulus)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Lowland to subalpine, usually in open areas, occasionally in forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Thick-spiked wheatgrass (Elymus lanceolatus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Sand and clay soils, dry to mesic grasslands, and sagebrush.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western wheatgrass (Pascopyrum smithii)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Sagebrush, prairie, and mesic alkaline meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Common whipplea (Whipplea modesta)
Distribution: Occurring on the Olympic Peninsula in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Dry, rocky, open to lightly forested areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Old-man's whiskers (Geum triflorum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east to the northern Great Plains, and Great Lakes regions.
Habitat: Prairies, balds, and moister places in the sagebrush plains, from the foothills to subalpine ridges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Asian white-top (Lepidium chalepense)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Disturbed areas, especially where dry, often associated with agriculture.
Origin: Introduced from Asia
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Whitetop (Lepidium appelianum)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and eastern U.,S.
Habitat: Disturbed soil, waste areas, in dry and moist places.
Origin: Introduced from Asia
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Alaska whitlow-grass (Draba stenoloba)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Alberta.
Habitat: Sublapine meadows to alpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Alkali false whitlow-grass (Cusickiella douglasii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the south-central area of Washington along the Columbia River; Washington to California, east to Idaho, Nevada, and Utah.
Habitat: Open, rocky ridges of the sagebrush desert, up into the lower mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Alpine whitlow-grass (Draba aureola)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington in the Mount Rainier area; Washington to northern California
Habitat: Alpine areas, including scree and moraine areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Broad-pod whitlow-grass (Draba platycarpa)
Distribution: Occurring in the east end of the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; south-central Washington, northeastern Oregon, and adjacent Idaho, east to the south-central U.S.
Habitat: Sagebrush plains to desert washes and hillsides.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Carolina whitlow-grass (Draba reptans)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central British Columbia to California, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Desert plains and foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Coast mountain whitlow-grass (Draba ruaxes)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in northern Washington; Alaska to Washington, east to Alberta.
Habitat: Rock crevices and slopes at or above timberline.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dense-leaf whitlow-grass (Draba densifolia)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, Wyoming, Nevada and Utah.
Habitat: Open, rocky places from mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Douglas' whitlow-grass (Cusickiella douglasii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in the south-central area of Washington along the Columbia River; Washington to California, east to Idaho, Nevada, and Utah.
Habitat: Open, rocky ridges of the sagebrush desert, up into the lower mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Few-seeded whitlow-grass (Draba oligosperma)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Colorado.
Habitat: From sagebrush plains to alpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Golden whitlow-grass (Draba aurea)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in north-central Washington; Alaska to north-central Washington, east to the Rocky Mountains; Greenland.
Habitat: Montane forest to alpine ridges or meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Great alpine whitlow-grass (Draba aureola)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington in the Mount Rainier area; Washington to northern California
Habitat: Alpine areas, including scree and moraine areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Mt. Lassen whitlow-grass (Draba aureola)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington in the Mount Rainier area; Washington to northern California
Habitat: Alpine areas, including scree and moraine areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Payson's whitlow-grass (Draba novolympica)
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympics and Cascades mountains of Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Open slopes, talus ridges, and other exposed areas in the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Slender whitlow-grass (Draba albertina)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Montane forest openings to alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial, Perennial
Snowbed whitlow-grass (Draba crassifolia)
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic Mountains and North Cascades in Washington; Alaska to Washington, Nevada, east to the Rocky Mountains; east across northern Canada to Greenland; northern Europe.
Habitat: Subalpine and alpine meadows, often in rock crevices and outcroppings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Annual, Perennial
Spring whitlow-grass (Draba verna)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, and from the central U.S. and eastern Canada to the Atlantic Coast; circumboreal.
Habitat: Shrub-steppe, grasslands, and open disturbed areas at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: February-May
Growth Duration: Annual
Tall whitlow-grass (Draba praealta)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, e to Northwest Territories, Alberta Montana, Idaho, Wyoming, and central Nevada.
Habitat: Montane woodland to subalpine ridges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Taylor's whitlow-grass (Draba taylorii)
Distribution: Occurring along and east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Washington.
Habitat: Rock crevices, ledges, and benches in the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Woodland whitlow-grass (Draba nemorosa)
Distribution: In scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across the northern half of the U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed open areas and forest edges at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Whitlow-wort (Draba incerta)
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades and Olympic Mountains in Washington; British Columbia and Alberta south to Washington, east to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Alpine and subalpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Whitlow-wort (Draba lonchocarpa)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Northwest Territories, south in Rocky mountains to Colorado.
Habitat: Alpine slopes, talus, and rocky outcroppings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Yellowstone draba whitlow-wort (Draba incerta)
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades and Olympic Mountains in Washington; British Columbia and Alberta south to Washington, east to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Alpine and subalpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern wild rice (Zizania palustris)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon and Arizona, east to Idaho and Montana; also in central and eastern North America, where native.
Habitat: Emergent in marshes, lakes, slow channels
Origin: Introduced from eastern and cerntal North America
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Blue wild-rye (Elymus glaucus)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Prairies, open woods, and dry to moist hillsides, from the lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Russian wild-rye (Psathyrostachys juncea)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where likely more common than specimens or photo evidence suggests; Alaska to Washington, also in the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Awnless wildrye (Elymus curvatus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; southeastern British Columbia to northeastern Washington, east to the northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Moist soils of open forest, thickets, grasslands, ditches, and disturbed ground, especially on bottomland.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Beardless wildrye (Leymus triticoides)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Texas.
Habitat: Dry to moist, often alkaline meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Boreal wildrye (Elymus hirsutus)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Alberta and Idaho.
Habitat: Forests, thickets, and grasslands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Creeping wildrye (Elymus repens)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast; circumboreal.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, meadows, pastures, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Giant wildrye (Leymus condensatus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, where native.
Habitat: Sagebrush steppe and valley bottoms.
Origin: Introduced from California
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Great Basin wildrye (Leymus cinereus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Sagebrush-steppe, arid grasslands, forest edges, and other dry, open areas in the intermountain west.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mammoth wildrye (Leymus racemosus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; central Washington to north-central Oregon, east to Wyoming.
Habitat: Sandy areas in sagebrush flats and plains.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northwest wildrye (Elymus hirsutus)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Alberta and Idaho.
Habitat: Forests, thickets, and grasslands.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sand wildrye (Leymus flavescens)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to Oregon, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Sandy soils.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Scribner's wildrye (Elymus scribneri)
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades Range in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Open, rocky, often windswept subalpine and alpine regions.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Vancouver wildrye (Leymus ×vancouverensis)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington along the marine coast; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Marine coastal shores.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wawawai wildrye (Elymus wawawaiensis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; southeastern Washington to eastern Oregon and western Idaho.
Habitat: Shallow, rocky soils.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sweet William (Dianthus barbatus)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Montana, also from the Great Plains east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Alpine willow (Salix petrophila)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Alpine areas, often near melting snowbanks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Arctic willow (Salix arctica)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in northwestern Washington; Alaska to northwestern Washington, east across northern Canada; circumboreal.
Habitat: In wet to dry areas in the alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Arroyo willow (Salix lasiolepis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho, Utah, New Mexico, and Texas.
Habitat: Riparian corridors from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Barclay's willow (Salix barclayi)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska east to Oregon, east to Northwest Territory, Alberta, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Lakes, streams, and other riparian areas in subalpine and alpine zone.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Basket willow (Salix purpurea)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered lowland locations west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, also in Utah, and from the central U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Ditches, floodplains, and shores.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bebb's willow (Salix bebbiana)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America, except in the southeastern U.S., to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Lakes, streams, and other riparian areas from low to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bog willow (Salix pedicellaris)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Territory to Oregon, east across Canada and northern U.S. to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Bogs, fens, and similar wet meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Booth's willow (Salix boothii)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Sasketchewan.
Habitat: Wet subalpine meadows, streambanks, lakeshores, and other riparian areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cascade willow (Salix cascadensis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Mt. Rainier, also in western Montana, Wyoming, Utah, and Colorado.
Habitat: High elevations in the mountains in subalpine and alpine habitats
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Coastal willow (Salix hookeriana)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Moist, often swamps areas, from the sea coast to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-April
Growth Duration: Perennial
Corkscrew willow (Salix matsudana)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; occurring in scattered locations across North America.
Habitat: Disturbed shorelines, where escaping from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced from Asia
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Coyote willow (Salix exigua)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, and southern Great Plains.
Habitat: Riparian areas, gravel bars, lake and pond shore margins
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Crack willow (Salix fragilis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert, including sand dunes, often where disturbed.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Drummond's willow (Salix drummondiana)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, Northwest Territory, and Saskatchewan.
Habitat: Streambanks, lakeshores, floodplains, and other riparian areas in montane and subalpine habitats.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dusky willow (Salix melanopsis)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the northern and central Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Riparian zones including streambanks, pond and lake margins, and subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dwarf snow willow (Salix nivalis)
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades and Olympic Mountains in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Subalpine meadows and alpine areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
False mountain willow (Salix pseudomonticola)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in the North Cascades in Washington; Alaska to Washington, east across the northern U.S. and Canada to Quebec.
Habitat: Wet meadows, forested wetlands, and other riparian areas in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Farr's willow (Salix farriae)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where known only from Okanogan County; Yukon to northern Washington and northeast Oregon, east to Montana, Idaho and Wyoming.
Habitat: Wet meadows and riparian zones from montane areas to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Geyer's willow (Salix geyeriana)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Lowland riparian areas including streambanks and pond and lake margins.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Gray willow (Salix bebbiana)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America, except in the southeastern U.S., to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Lakes, streams, and other riparian areas from low to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Gray willow (Salix glauca)
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades and Olympic Mountains in Washington; Alaska to northwestern Washington, east to western Montana.
Habitat: Middle elevations to above timberline in moist places to open slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Long-beak willow (Salix bebbiana)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America, except in the southeastern U.S., to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Lakes, streams, and other riparian areas from low to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Maccalla's willow (Salix maccalliana)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to Washington, east across northern North America to Quebec.
Habitat: Wet meadows, bogs, fens, streambanks and lakeshores from low to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Mackenzie's willow (Salix prolixa)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Northwest Territories, Alberta, Montana, and Wyoming.
Habitat: Along streams in the lowlands to lower valleys in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Narrow-leaf willow (Salix exigua)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, and southern Great Plains.
Habitat: Riparian areas, gravel bars, lake and pond shore margins
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
One-color willow (Salix monochroma)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in southeastern Washington; southeastern Washington to adjacent Oregon, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Montane stream banks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pacific willow (Salix lasiandra)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Riparian areas from the coast to the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Peach-leaf willow (Salix amygdaloides)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon and Nevada, east to the Great Plains, upper midwest, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Wetlands, streambanks, and other riparian areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Plane-leaf willow (Salix planifolia)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Wet meadows, lake margins, streambanks and other riparian areas in the alpine and subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Purple willow (Salix purpurea)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered lowland locations west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, also in Utah, and from the central U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Ditches, floodplains, and shores.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Rock willow (Salix vestita)
Distribution: Occurring in the North Cascades in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east to Alberta and in Montana; also in cetnral and eastern Canada.
Habitat: Moist forest opening, streambanks, and other riparian areas in montane and subalpine habitats.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sage willow (Salix candida)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; Alaska to northeastern Washington, east across the northern U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Lakeshores, pond margins, streambanks, and other riparian areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sage-leaf willow (Salix candida)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; Alaska to northeastern Washington, east across the northern U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Lakeshores, pond margins, streambanks, and other riparian areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Scouler's willow (Salix scouleriana)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Moist woods and streambanks, lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sessile-leaf willow (Salix sessilifolia)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon.
Habitat: Riparian corridors at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Short-fruited willow (Salix brachycarpa)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Yukon Territory to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, and east across Canada to Quebec.
Habitat: Riparian areas, wetlands, and meadows from middle elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sierran willow (Salix eastwoodiae)
Distribution: In the mountains of Washington; Washington south to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Nevada.
Habitat: Alpine and subalpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sitka willow (Salix sitchensis)
Distribution: Occurring in forested areas on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to western Montana.
Habitat: Moist woods and stream banks, lowlands to moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tea-leaved willow (Salix planifolia)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Wet meadows, lake margins, streambanks and other riparian areas in the alpine and subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tweedy's willow (Salix tweedyi)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in north-central Washington; British Columbia to Washington, east to Montana, Idaho and Wyoming.
Habitat: Wet meadows, lake margins, streambanks, and other riparian areas in alpine and subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Variable willow (Salix commutata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Northwest Territory, Sasketchawan, and Montana.
Habitat: Moist areas, mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Weeping willow (Salix ×sepulcralis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Riparian zones and other wet areas, often where disturbed.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: March-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Willow weed (Persicaria lapathifolia)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Streambanks, pond and lakeshores and other wet places.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Alpine willow-herb (Epilobium anagallidifolium)
Distribution: Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, also in northeastern North America; circumboreal.
Habitat: Subalpine to alpine slopes and meadows, seeps, stream banks, and damp gravel.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Autumn willow-herb (Epilobium brachycarpum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Common in dry, open meadows and grasslands to lightly wooded areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Bog willow-herb (Epilobium leptophyllum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana; also in eastern North America, where native.
Habitat: Peatlands, marshes, and wet meadows.
Origin: Introduced from eastern North America
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Broad-leaved willow-herb (Epilobium montanum)
Origin: Introduced
Brook willow-herb (Epilobium torreyi)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washingtpn; southwestern British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Places that are soggy with standing water in winter and spring, drying in summer.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual
California willow-herb (Epilobium minutum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, Montana, Utah, and Arizona.
Habitat: Dry or gravelly soil, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Chaparral willow-herb (Epilobium minutum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, Montana, Utah, and Arizona.
Habitat: Dry or gravelly soil, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Ciliate willow-herb (Epilobium ciliatum)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington. Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist soil from lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Ciliate willow-herb (Epilobium glandulosum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, also across southern Canada and the northern U.S. to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist meadows and riparian areas from coastal elevations to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dense-flower willow-herb (Epilobium densiflorum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades in Washington; Vancouver Island, British Columbia to Baja California, east to Montana, Utah, and Arizona.
Habitat: Moist to seasonally moist meadows, springs, shores, riparian zones, slopes, roadsides, and ditches.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Glandular willow-herb (Epilobium hallianum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Moist to wet areas from montane to alpine habitats.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Great willow-herb (Epilobium hirsutum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to Oregon; also in upper central and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Garden escape in wet areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hairy willow-herb (Epilobium hirsutum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to Oregon; also in upper central and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Garden escape in wet areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hall's willow-herb (Epilobium hallianum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Moist to wet areas from montane to alpine habitats.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hornemann's willow-herb (Epilobium hornemannii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains; also in eastern North America; circumboreal.
Habitat: Wet rocky areas and streambanks, low to subalpine elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Marsh willow-herb (Epilobium palustre)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska east to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Lakes region, and the Atlantic coast;.
Habitat: Wet soil, often in bogs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Olympic Mountain willow-herb (Epilobium mirabile)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in the Olympic and North Cascades mountains in Washington; southern British Columbia to northern Washington, east to Alberta.
Habitat: Wet to dry scree, talus, steep slopes, often limy, from subalpine to alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Oregon willow-herb (Epilobium oregonense)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Arizona.
Habitat: Streambanks, bogs, and wet meadows from moderate elevations in mountains to alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pimpernel willow-herb (Epilobium anagallidifolium)
Distribution: Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, also in northeastern North America; circumboreal.
Habitat: Subalpine to alpine slopes and meadows, seeps, stream banks, and damp gravel.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Slender-fruit willow-herb (Epilobium leptocarpum)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Alberta and Idaho.
Habitat: Damp rocky slopes and ledges, shores, and wet meadow margins.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Small-flowered willow-herb (Epilobium minutum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta, Montana, Utah, and Arizona.
Habitat: Dry or gravelly soil, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Smooth willow-herb (Epilobium campestre)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Mud flats, vernal pools.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Smooth willow-herb (Epilobium glaberrimum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Wet places at mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Tall annual willow-herb (Epilobium brachycarpum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Common in dry, open meadows and grasslands to lightly wooded areas.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Talus willow-herb (Epilobium clavatum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Montana and Colorado.
Habitat: Moist meadows and talus slopes in the mountains, subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Watson's willow-herb (Epilobium ciliatum)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington. Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist soil from lowlands to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
White-flower willow-herb (Epilobium lactiflorum)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, also in eastern North America; circumboreal.
Habitat: Mesic to wet meadows, stream banks, and talus, from middle to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Yellow willow-herb (Epilobium luteum)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta.
Habitat: Stream banks and wet areas at mid- to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Columbian windflower (Anemone deltoidea)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest and east in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington to California.
Habitat: Dry to moist woodlands at low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Drummond's windflower (Anemone drummondii)
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic and Cascade Mountains in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Montana and Wyoming.
Habitat: Subalpine to alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lyall's windflower (Anemone lyallii)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Low elevation prairies to subalpine ridges.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern windflower (Anemone parviflora)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in the North Cascades in Washington; Alaska to northern Washington, east to Montana and Wyoming, in scattered locations in Utah and Colorado, and also east across northern Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Mountain meadows and subalpine stream banks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Oregon windflower (Anemone oregana)
Distribution: Occurring in forested areas on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to northern California.
Habitat: Moist, open woods, low to mid-elevations in the mountains, also in marshes and bogs along the coast.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Piper's windflower (Anemone piperi)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington in the far eastern part of the state; Washington to northeast Oregon east to Idaho and western Montana.
Habitat: Shady woods at moderate elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wingscale (Atriplex canescens)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Sand or gravel slopes and sagebrush flats, saline or not.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bitter wintercress (Barbarea vulgaris)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Garden escape, found chiefly in wet places.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Biennial
Early wintercress (Barbarea verna)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Idaho and Colorado; also in central and eastern U.S.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed sites.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Winterfat (Krascheninnikovia lanata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the Great Plains.
Habitat: Sagebrush plains and foothills, often in saline or alkaline soil.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Alpine wintergreen (Gaultheria humifusa)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest In Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains from Alberta to Colorado.
Habitat: Subalpine to alpine areas, usually where moist to wet.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Common pink wintergreen (Pyrola asarifolia)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Moist ground in woodlands and forests, from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Green-flower wintergreen (Pyrola chlorantha)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and across northern U.S. and Canada to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Chiefly in coniferous forests at moderate to mid-elevations, usually where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Leafless wintergreen (Pyrola aphylla)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to Baja California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Dry coniferous forests at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lesser wintergreen (Pyrola minor)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; east across Canada and northern U.S. to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Uncommon, mostly in moist areas in coniferous woods, moderate to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Liver-leaf wintergreen (Pyrola asarifolia)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Moist ground in woodlands and forests, from low to middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Slender wintergreen (Gaultheria ovatifolia)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Forested areas from fairly dry Ponderosa pine to subalpine bogs.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Snowline wintergreen (Pyrola minor)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains; east across Canada and northern U.S. to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Uncommon, mostly in moist areas in coniferous woods, moderate to high elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
White wintergreen (Pyrola elliptica)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington to the Mount St. Helens area; British Columbia to Washington east to Montana and Wyoming, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Dry montane forests.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
White-vein wintergreen (Pyrola picta)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Coniferous woods, especially ponderosa pine, moderate to mid-elevations in the mountains
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Small wirelettuce (Stephanomeria exigua)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington, where known from Douglas County; otherwise central Oregon to California, east to Idaho, Colorado, and Texas.
Habitat: Sandy, open sites, often in sagebrush.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Stiff-branched wirelettuce (Stephanomeria paniculata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Dry, open places in the plains and foothills.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Annual
False wireweed (Rigiopappus leptocladus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in south-central Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Dry, open areas at low elevations; sagebrush and grasslands area
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Annual
Witchgrass (Panicum capillare)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Moist and irrigated areas, along streams and around ponds.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-September
Growth Duration: Annual
Chinese wolfberry (Lycium chinense)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; sporadically distributed across North America.
Habitat: Fields, roadsides, wastelots, and other disturbed areas.
Origin: Introduced from Asia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wolfberry (Elaeagnus commutata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Washington and California (but not Oregon), east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, and eastern Canada.
Habitat: Gravel benches and scabland, commonly along watercourses.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wolfberry (Symphoricarpos occidentalis)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia south to Utah, east to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Prairies, forest margins, and bottomlands from low to mid-elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
John Day wood beauty (Drymocallis campanulata)
Distribution: south-central Washington to north-central and east-central Oregon.
Habitat: Basalt cliffs, talus, canyons, and washes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Sierra wood fern (Amauropelta nevadensis)
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades in Washington; Alaska to central Cascades in Washington; also in eastern Asia.
Habitat: Stream banks, moist forest, and springs, lowland to midmontane.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Crested wood-fern (Dryopteris cristata)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in northeastern Washington; Alaska to Idaho, east across northern U.S. and Canada to eastern North America; also in Europe.
Habitat: Moist woods and thickets at middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spinulose wood-fern (Dryopteris carthusiana)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east across the northern U.S. and Canada to eastern North America.
Habitat: Moist woods and streambanks.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spreading wood-fern (Dryopteris expansa)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Idaho, and Montana.
Habitat: Moist to wet woods and streambanks.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Toothed wood-fern (Dryopteris carthusiana)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east across the northern U.S. and Canada to eastern North America.
Habitat: Moist woods and streambanks.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Slender wood-reed (Cinna latifolia)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, and eastern North America.
Habitat: Moist woods and meadows, sea level to subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Short-stalked wood-rush (Luzula subsessilis)
Distribution: Ocurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Dunes, ledges, meadows, and open forest.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Creeping yellow wood-sorrel (Oxalis corniculata)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest and along the Columbia River in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast;
Habitat: A weed of gardens, disturbed areas, and waste places.
Origin: Introduced from Europe
Flowers: May-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Great wood-sorrel (Oxalis trilliifolia)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to northwest California, disjunct in northern Idaho.
Habitat: Meadows and moist woods in the coastal mountains and up to 6000 feet in the Cascades.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Oregon wood-sorrel (Oxalis oregana)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Casades crest in Washington; Olympic Mountains and west slope of the Cascades in Washington; British Columbia south to California.
Habitat: Moist woods, low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Slender yellow wood-sorrel (Oxalis dillenii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Oregon, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Open areas, often where moist, at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from central and eastern North America
Flowers: February-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Trillium-leaf wood-sorrel (Oxalis trilliifolia)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to northwest California, disjunct in northern Idaho.
Habitat: Meadows and moist woods in the coastal mountains and up to 6000 feet in the Cascades.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Upright yellow wood-sorrel (Oxalis stricta)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to Washington, Idaho, and Arizona, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Disturbed ground, lawns and gardens.
Origin: Introduced from central and eastern North America
Flowers: April-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Western yellow wood-sorrel (Oxalis suksdorfii)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern Washington to northwest California.
Habitat: Low elevations, usually in moist, coastal woods but sometimes on rather dry, open slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Woodbine (Lonicera periclymenum)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; western Washington to California, also in scattered locations in northeastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, forest edge, fields, wastelots, and other disturbed areas at low elevations.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Bulbous woodland star (Lithophragma glabrum)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and northern Great Plains.
Habitat: Grasslands and sagebrush desert to ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir forest openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Slender woodland star (Lithophragma tenellum)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert and ponderosa pine forests openings.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Small-flower woodland star (Lithophragma parviflorum)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains and Great Plains.
Habitat: Prairies, balds, sagebrush desert, and forest openings, sea level to mid-elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cascades woodrush (Luzula cascadensis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in south-central Washington; south-central Washington to California, east to western Montana.
Habitat: Wet or peaty montane meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Common woodrush (Luzula multiflora)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Alberta and western Montana; also in northeastern United States.
Habitat: Fields, meadows, open woods and clearings, at low to middle elevations in the mountains.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Curved woodrush (Luzula arcuata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to south-central Washington, east to western Montana.
Habitat: Rocky or gravelly soil, usually on moraines or above timberline.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Field woodrush (Luzula campestris)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to western Washington; also in New England.
Habitat: Lowland lawns or dry, disturbed ground.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Hitchcock's woodrush (Luzula hitchcockii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to Crater Lake and the Wallowa Mountains of Oregon, east to Alberta, Montana, and northwestern Wyoming.
Habitat: Montane forests to alpine slopes, ridges and meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Large-anthered woodrush (Luzula macrantha)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Balds, prairies, grasslands, and forest openings at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Large-flowered woodrush (Luzula macrantha)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Balds, prairies, grasslands, and forest openings at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Pacific woodrush (Luzula comosa)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Coastal to montane openings, rocky slopes, forests and shores.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-July
Growth Duration: Perennial
Piper's woodrush (Luzula piperi)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to Alberta, Montana, and northwestern Wyoming.
Habitat: Moraines, rocky slopes, open forest, and subalpine to alpine meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Prairie woodrush (Luzula macrantha)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Balds, prairies, grasslands, and forest openings at low to moderate elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: April-June
Growth Duration: Perennial
Small-flowered woodrush (Luzula parviflora)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, northern Great Plains, Great Lakes region, and northeastern North America.
Habitat: Moist to fairly dry areas, coastal rain forest to alpine slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Smooth woodrush (Luzula hitchcockii)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to Crater Lake and the Wallowa Mountains of Oregon, east to Alberta, Montana, and northwestern Wyoming.
Habitat: Montane forests to alpine slopes, ridges and meadows.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Southern woodrush (Luzula forsteri)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in lowland western Washington; lowland western Washington and Salem, OR.
Habitat: Low elevation disturbed sites including lawns, parks, and forest edge.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia and northern Africa
Flowers: April-May
Growth Duration: Perennial
Spiked woodrush (Luzula spicata)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, east across northern Canada to northeastern North America; also in Eurasia.
Habitat: Subalpine to alpine slopes, moraines, and stream banks.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Oregon woodsia (Woodsia oregana)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the northern Great Plains and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Rock crevices, ledges and talus slopes in the mountains, and in less arid parts of the lowlands.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Woodsia (Woodsia scopulina)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Rocky Mountains, Great Plains, and scattered areas in eastern North America.
Habitat: Rock crevices, ledges and talus slopes in the mountains, and in less arid parts of the lowlands.
Origin: Native
Growth Duration: Perennial
Common woolly sunflower (Eriophyllum lanatum)
Distribution: Widely distributed on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Montana, Wyoming, and Utah.
Habitat: Dry, open, often rocky areas at low elevations to the subalpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dwarf woolly-marbles (Psilocarphus brevissimus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to the northern Great Plains and Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Dried beds of vernal pools.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Oregon woollyheads (Psilocarphus oregonus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to Idaho and Nevada.
Habitat: Dried beds of vernal pools, and seasonally wet rocky slopes.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Annual
Slender woollyheads (Psilocarphus tenellus)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; southwestern British Columbia to California, east to Idaho.
Habitat: Dry or seasonally moist barren or wooded slopes or flats, often on disturbed sites.
Origin: Native
Flowers: March-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Tall woollyheads (Psilocarphus elatior)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Idaho and Montana.
Habitat: Dried beds of vernal pools and other open, moist places.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Wilcox's woolstar (Eriastrum wilcoxii)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in central Washington; central Washington to southern California, east to southern Idaho and western Utah.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert in sandy or stony soil.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Annual
Wormseed (Dysphania ambrosioides)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Washington to California, east to the southern Rocky Mountains; native from the Great Plains to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides and waste areas, riparian zones, tolerant of alkaline.
Origin: Introduced from southern North America and tropical America
Flowers: July-November
Growth Duration: Annual
Annual wormwood (Artemisia annua)
Distribution: Occurring in scattered locations east of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed open places.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: August-October
Growth Duration: Annual
Beach wormwood (Artemisia stelleriana)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the northeastern coast of the Olympic Peninsula in Washington; native to Alaska, also occurring from the Great Lakes region east to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Coastal dunes and beaches in developed coastal areas, where escaping from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Biennial wormwood (Artemisia biennis)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast, where considered introduced.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, irrigation ditches, streambanks, and other disturbed open areas, especially in sandy soil.
Origin: Native
Flowers: August-October
Growth Duration: Annual, Biennial
Boreal wormwood (Artemisia norvegica)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska south to California, east to the Rocky Mountains.
Habitat: Subalpine and alpine areas, typically where moist.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Cascade wormwood (Artemisia tilesii)
Distribution: Occurring in the Olympic and Cascade Mountains of Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Montana, and east across Canada to Quebec.
Habitat: Open rocky or gravelly, wet or dry sites, from middle elevations to the alpine, descending to sea level northward.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Coastal wormwood (Artemisia suksdorfii)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California.
Habitat: Bluffs, beaches, rocky areas, and riverbanks, especially near the coast.
Origin: Native
Flowers: June-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Douglas's wormwood (Artemisia douglasiana)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Washington to California, east to Nevada.
Habitat: Mostly along stream banks and river bottoms.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Dragon wormwood (Artemisia dracunculus)
Distribution: Occurring east of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east to the Great Plains and Great Lakes region.
Habitat: Sagebrush desert to ponderosa pine forest openings at middle elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Forked wormwood (Artemisia furcata)
Distribution: Occurring in the Cascades and Olympic Mountains of Washington; Alaska to Washington, east to Northwest Territories, Alberta, and Nunavut.
Habitat: Open, rocky ledges and talus slopes in the subalpine and alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Lobed wormwood (Artemisia vulgaris)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest and in the Columbia River Gorge in Washington; Alaska to Oregon, east to Montana, east across Canada to the Great Lakes region and eastern North America.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed, open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: August-October
Growth Duration: Perennial
Michaux's wormwood (Artemisia michauxiana)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east to Alberta and Wyoming.
Habitat: Rocky places in the mountains at rather high elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-August
Growth Duration: Perennial
Northern wormwood (Artemisia campestris)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; Alaska to California, east across most of North America to the Atlantic Coast; also in Eurasia.
Habitat: Open places, often in sandy or rocky soil, from low elevations to alpine.
Origin: Native
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Biennial, Perennial
Steller's wormwood (Artemisia stelleriana)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest along the northeastern coast of the Olympic Peninsula in Washington; native to Alaska, also occurring from the Great Lakes region east to northeastern North America.
Habitat: Coastal dunes and beaches in developed coastal areas, where escaping from cultivation.
Origin: Introduced
Flowers: May-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium)
Distribution: Occurring on both sides of the Cascades crest in Washington; British Columbia to California, east across much of North America to the Atlantic Coast.
Habitat: Roadsides, fields, ditches, wastelots, and other disturbed open areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: July-September
Growth Duration: Perennial
Swallow wort (Chelidonium majus)
Distribution: Occurring chiefly west of the Cascades crest in Washington; southern British Columbia to Oregon, east to Montana; also in eastern North America.
Habitat: Moist to dry woods, roadsides, fields, waste areas.
Origin: Introduced from Eurasia
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Biennial
Narrowleaf wyethia (Wyethia angustifolia)
Distribution: Occurring west of the Cascades crest in southwestern Washington, and east in the Columbia River Gorge; Washington to California.
Habitat: Meadows and moist, open hillsides at low elevations.
Origin: Native
Flowers: May-July
Growth Duration: Perennial