Publication: Syst. Bot. 8: 298. 1983.
selected vouchers: WTU
Notes: FNA8: "Regional variation in Pyrola asarifolia in North America was examined by E. Haber (1983) using morphological and flavonoid data. Despite finding some longitudinal geographic differentiation, he concluded that most earlier-recognized segregates of the P. asarifolia complex were best included within a single, polymorphic species, with the large-bracted, denticulate-leaved, Pacific Northwest and northern Rocky Mountains element (subsp. bracteata) distinguishable from the relatively short-bracted, crenate-leaved, transcontinental element (subsp. asarifolia). Included within his concept of the latter subspecies were Asian plants referred to P. incarnata (de Candolle) Freyn. A more comprehensive study of the Asian element (Haber and Hiroshi Takahashi 1988) led to the conclusion that this vicariad was sufficiently distinct to warrant recognition as P. asarifolia subsp. incarnata (de Candolle) Haber & Hir. Takahashi; it is distinguished from the North American subspecies by its narrower sepals. Takahashi (1993) found differences also in the seeds of the two subspecies."